Abstract: In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.
Abstract: For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.
Abstract: Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different
content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching
method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear)
measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at
ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature,
softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a
function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic
moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio
have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content.
Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression)
model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain
more information about the structure of these glasses. The study
indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of
SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging
and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).
Abstract: Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used
industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low
cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment
of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study
was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7
(AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell
(TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye
concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The
studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on
flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth.
The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were
analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The
adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient
associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and
mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with
Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different
conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model
(R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The
(TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7
using fixed-bed adsorption column.
Abstract: In the present study, a numerical approach to describe the pyrolysis of a single solid particle of wood is used to study the influence of various conditions such as particle size, heat transfer coefficient, reactor temperature and heating rate. The influence of these parameters in the change of the duration of the pyrolysis cycle was studied. Mathematical modeling was employed to simulate the heat, mass transfer, and kinetic processes inside the reactor. The evolutions of the mass loss as well as the evolution of temperature inside the thick piece are investigated numerically. The elaborated model was also employed to study the effect of the reactor temperature and the rate of heating on the change of the temperature and the local loss of the mass inside the piece of wood. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature.
Abstract: Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many
types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as
plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill.
Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials, which
are biodegradable and available for 3D printing within Fused
Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the
mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar
technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production.
Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength
measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer
settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of
tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced
by conventional technologies as injection moulding.
Abstract: The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for
quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s
modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on
a laser thermooptical method of ultrasound generation combined
with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear
acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method
compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the
efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses
required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and
scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples
of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of
silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to
provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing
concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample
should not exceed 2%.
Abstract: In this work, repaired crack in 6061- T6 aluminum
plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the
displacement, strain and stress, also the first six mode shape of the
plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack
initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its seize vary
from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second.
Thirdly we repair various cracks with composite patch (carbon/
epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally the comparison of stress,
strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked
specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.
Abstract: The development of composite materials and the
related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most
important advances in the history of materials. Composites are
multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and
physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a
particular application. Some composites also exhibit great resistance
to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and wear. Polymers are
widely used indoors and outdoors, therefore they are exposed to a
chemical environment which may include atmospheric oxygen, acidic
fumes, acidic rain, moisture heat and thermal shock, ultra-violet light,
high energy radiation, etc. Different polymers are affected differently
by these factors even though the amorphous polymers are more
sensitive. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of
deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined
effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, microorganisms
and other atmospheric factors.
Abstract: The effect of molybdate addition to chloride
environment on resistance of AISI 316Ti stainless steel to pitting
corrosion was studied. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were
performed in 1 M and 0.1 M chloride acidified solutions with various
additions of sodium molybdate at room temperature. The presented
results compare the effect of molybdate anions on quality of passive
film (expressed by the pitting potential) in both chloride solutions.
The pitting potential increases with the increase inhibitor
concentration. The inhibitive effect of molybdate ions is stronger in
chloride solution of lower aggressiveness (0.1M).
Abstract: This paper reports the viability of developing Zn-27Al
alloy matrix hybrid composites reinforced with alumina, graphite and
fly ash (solid waste bye product of coal in thermal power plants).
This research work was aimed at developing low cost-high
performance Zn-27Al matrix composite with low density. Alumina
particulates (Al2O3), graphite added with 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% fly ash
were utilized to prepare 10wt% reinforcing phase with Zn-27Al alloy
as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Density measurement,
estimated percentage porosity, tensile testing, micro hardness
measurement and optical microscopy were used to assess the
performance of the composites produced. The results show that the
hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation of the
hybrid composites decrease with increase in fly ash content. The
maximum decrease in hardness and ultimate tensile strength of
13.72% and 15.25% respectively were observed for composite grade
containing 5wt% fly ash. The percentage elongation of composite
sample without fly ash is 8.9% which is comparable with that of the
sample containing 2wt% fly ash with percentage elongation of 8.8%.
The fracture toughness of the fly ash containing composites was
however superior to those of composites without fly ash with 5wt%
fly ash containing composite exhibiting the highest fracture
toughness. The results show that fly ash can be utilized as
complementary reinforcement in ZA-27 alloy matrix composite to
Abstract: This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic
sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical
environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For
example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its
presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human
breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital
importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian Blue (PB), was
deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single
source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a
spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O
vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2
concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore,
the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale
with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us
to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.
Abstract: We investigated ecotoxicity and performed experiment
for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. Short term exposure of
hatching test using fertilized eggs (O. latipes) showed deformity in
5ppm of ZnO nanoparticles solution. And in 10ppm ZnO nanoparticles
solution delayed hatching was observed. Hereine, chemical
precipitation method was suggested for removing ZnO nanoparticles
in water. The precipitated ZnO nanoparticles showed the form of ZnS
after addition of Na2S, and the form of Zn3(PO4)2 for Na2HPO4. The
removal efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in water was closed to 100%
for two cases. In ecotoxicity evaluation of as-precipitated ZnS and
Zn3(PO4)2, they did not cause any acute toxicity for D. magna. It is
noted that this precipitation treatment of ZnO is effective to reduce the
Abstract: Biomass treatment through densification is very suitable and helpful technology before its effective energy recovery. Densification process of biomass is significantly influenced by various technological and material variables, which are ultimately reflected on the final solid biofuels quality. The paper deals with the experimental research of the relationship between technological and material variables during densification of fast-growing trees, roundly fast-growing willows. The main goal of presented experimental research is to determine the relationship between compression pressure and raw material particle size from a final briquettes density point of view. Experimental research was realized by single-axis densification. The impact of particle size with interaction of compression pressure and stabilization time on the quality properties of briquettes was determined. These variables interaction affects the final solid biofuels (briquettes) quality. From briquettes production point of view and from densification machines constructions point of view is very important to know about mutual interaction of these variables on final briquettes quality. The experimental findings presented here are showing the importance of mentioned variables during the densification process.
Abstract: The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the
electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)
(P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated
in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in
the present work are 5-50 μm and 200-600 nm respectively. The
nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by
solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of
weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates
that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the
ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of
crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been
confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with
various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has
been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Moreover CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior
thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as
confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Abstract: Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly
becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and biosensing
as well as purely electromechanical applications such as
microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and
chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence,
micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more
biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with
mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three
process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity,
and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different
polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434 . In particular,
the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould
temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The
study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are
the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated
in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes
improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does
not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.