Abstract: The applications of composite materials within the aviation industry has been increasing at a rapid pace. However, the growing applications of composite materials have also led to growing demand for more tooling to support its manufacturing processes. Tooling and tooling maintenance represents a large portion of the composite manufacturing process and cost. Therefore, the industry’s adaptability to new techniques for fabricating high quality tools quickly and inexpensively will play a crucial role in composite material’s growing popularity in the aviation industry. One popular tool fabrication technique currently being developed involves additive manufacturing such as 3D printing. Although additive manufacturing and 3D printing are not entirely new concepts, the technique has been gaining popularity due to its ability to quickly fabricate components, maintain low material waste, and low cost. In this study, a team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students investigated the effectiveness of a 3D printed composite compression mold. A 3D printed composite compression mold was fabricated by 3D scanning a steel valve cover of an aircraft reciprocating engine. The 3D printed composite compression mold was used to fabricate carbon fiber versions of the aircraft reciprocating engine valve cover. The 3D printed composite compression mold was evaluated for its performance, durability, and dimensional stability while the fabricated carbon fiber valve covers were evaluated for its accuracy and quality. The results and data gathered from this study will determine the effectiveness of the 3D printed composite compression mold in a mass production environment and provide valuable information for future understanding, improvements, and design considerations of 3D printed composite molds.
Abstract: In composite manufacturing, the fabrication of tooling and tooling maintenance contributes to a large portion of the total cost. However, as the applications of composite materials continue to increase, there is also a growing demand for more tooling. The demand for more tooling places heavy emphasis on the industry’s ability to fabricate high quality tools while maintaining the tool’s cost effectiveness. One of the popular techniques of tool fabrication currently being developed utilizes additive manufacturing technology known as 3D printing. The popularity of 3D printing is due to 3D printing’s ability to maintain low material waste, low cost, and quick fabrication time. In this study, a team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students investigated the effectiveness of a 3D printed composite mold. A steel valve cover from an aircraft reciprocating engine was modeled utilizing 3D scanning and computer-aided design (CAD) to create a 3D printed composite mold. The mold was used to fabricate carbon fiber versions of the aircraft reciprocating engine valve cover. The carbon fiber valve covers were evaluated for dimensional accuracy and quality while the 3D printed composite mold was evaluated for durability and dimensional stability. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the understanding of 3D printed composite molds, potential improvements for the molds, and considerations for future tooling design.
Abstract: A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.
Abstract: Soybean Natto powder was added to the burger in order to enhance the oxidative stability as well as decreases the microbial spoilage. The soybean bioactives compound (soybean Natto) as antioxidant and antimicrobial were added at level of 1, 2 and 3%. Chemical analysis and physical properties were affected by soybean Natto addition. All the tested soybean Natto additives showed strong antioxidant properties. The microbiological indicators were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the addition of the soybean Natto. Decreasing trends of different extent were also observed in samples of the treatments for total viable counts, Coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, yeast and molds. Storage period was significantly (P < 0.05) affected on microbial counts in all samples Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive microbe followed by Coliform group of the sample containing soybean Natto. Sensory attributes were also performed, added soybean Natto exhibits beany flavor which was clear about samples of 3% soybean Natto.
Abstract: Microbial air contamination of the outdoor air in Marine Durres-s Harbour (Durres, Albania) was estimated by sedimentation technique in August-October 2008. The sampling areas were: Ferry Terminal (FT), Fishery Harbor (FH), East Zone (EZ), Fuel Quay (FQ) and Apollonian Beach (AB). The aim of this study was to measure the number of aerobic plate count (mesophilic aerobic bacteria) and fungi (yeasts and molds) in the outdoor air in these areas. The number of colonies that were formed determines the number of cells at the moment in the outdoor air; respectively the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds. The measure of bacteria and fungi used is CFU (Colony Forming Units) per Petri dish. It is said that marine harbours are very polluted areas. The aim of study was the definition of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds number, and the comparison of microorganisms number in air sampling areas.
Abstract: Dried soy protein hydrolysate powder was added to
the burger in order to enhance the oxidative stability as well as
decreases the microbial spoilage. The soybean bioactive compounds
(soy protein hydrolysate) as antioxidant and antimicrobial were added
at level of 1, 2 and 3 %.Chemical analysis and physical properties
were affected by protein hydrolysate addition. The TBA values were
significantly affected (P < 0.05) by the storage period and the level of
soy protein hydrolysate. All the tested soybean protein hydrolysate
additives showed strong antioxidant properties. Samples of soybean
protein hydrolysate showed the lowest (P < 0.05) TBA values at each
time of storage.
The counts of all determined microbiological indicators were
significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the addition of the soybean
protein hydrolysate. Decreasing trends of different extent were also
observed in samples of the treatments for total viable counts,
Coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, yeast and molds. Storage period
was being significantly (P < 0.05) affected on microbial counts in all
samples Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive microbe
followed by Coliform group of the sample containing protein
hydrolysate, while molds and yeast count showed a decreasing trend
but not significant (P < 0.05) until the end of the storage period
compared with control sample. Sensory attributes were also
performed, added protein hydrolysate exhibits beany flavor which
was clear about samples of 3% protein hydrolysate.
Abstract: Small cracks or chips of a product appear very
frequently in the course of continuous production of an automatic
press process system. These phenomena become the cause of not only
defective product but also damage of a press mold. In order to solve
this problem AE system was introduced. AE system was expected to
be very effective to real time detection of the defective product and to
prevention of the damage of the press molds.
In this study, for pick and analysis of AE signals generated from the
press process, AE sensors/pre-amplifier/analysis and processing board
were used as frequently found in the other similar cases. For analysis
and processing the AE signals picked in real time from the good or bad
products, specialized software called cdm8 was used. As a result of
this work it was conformed that intensity and shape of the various AE
signals differ depending on the weight and thickness of metal sheet
and process type.