Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate how various algorithms can be implemented within swarms of autonomous robots to provide continuous inspection within underground pipeline networks. Current methods of fault detection within pipes are costly, time consuming and inefficient. As such, solutions tend toward a more reactive approach, repairing faults, as opposed to proactively seeking leaks and blockages. The paper presents an efficient inspection method, showing that autonomous swarm robotics is a viable way of monitoring underground infrastructure. Tailored adaptations of various Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) and path-planning algorithms provide a customised inspection procedure for complicated networks of underground pipes. The performance of multiple algorithms is compared to determine their effectiveness and feasibility. Notable inspirations come from ant colonies and stigmergy, graph theory, the k-Chinese Postman Problem ( -CPP) and traffic theory. Unlike most swarm behaviours which rely on fast communication between agents, underground pipe networks are a highly challenging communication environment with extremely limited communication ranges. This is due to the extreme variability in the pipe conditions and relatively high attenuation of acoustic and radio waves with which robots would usually communicate. This paper illustrates how to optimise the inspection process and how to increase the frequency with which the robots pass each other, without compromising the routes they are able to take to cover the whole network.
Abstract: In this paper, there is concentration on collaborative transportation planning (CTP) among multiple carriers with pickup and delivery requests and time windows. This problem is a vehicle routing problem with constraints from standard vehicle routing problems and new constraints from a real-world application. In the problem, each carrier has a finite number of vehicles, and each request is a pickup and delivery request with time window. Moreover, each carrier has reserved requests, which must be served by itself, whereas its exchangeable requests can be outsourced to and served by other carriers. This collaboration among carriers can help them to reduce total transportation costs. A mixed integer programming model is proposed to the problem. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm that combines Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing (GASA) is proposed. This algorithm takes advantages of GASA at the same time. After tuning the parameters of the algorithm with the Taguchi method, the experiments are conducted and experimental results are provided for the hybrid algorithm. The results are compared with those obtained by a commercial solver. The comparison indicates that the GASA significantly outperforms the commercial solver.
Abstract: This work investigates an intermodal transportation system for delivering goods from a Regional Distribution Centre to supermarkets on the Isle of Wight (IOW) via the port of Southampton or Portsmouth in the UK. We consider this integrated logistics chain as a 3-echelon transportation system. In such a system, there are two types of transport methods used to deliver goods across the Solent Channel: one is accompanied transport, which is used by most supermarkets on the IOW, such as Spar, Lidl and Co-operative food; the other is unaccompanied transport, which is used by Aldi. Five transport scenarios are studied based on different transport modes and ferry routes. The aim is to determine an optimal delivery plan for supermarkets of different business scales on IOW, in order to minimise the total running cost, fuel consumptions and carbon emissions. The problem is modelled as a vehicle routing problem with time windows and solved by genetic algorithm. The computing results suggested that accompanied transport is more cost efficient for small and medium business-scale supermarket chains on IOW, while unaccompanied transport has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of large business scale supermarket chains.
Abstract: Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a complex combinatorial optimization problem and it is quite difficult to find an optimal solution consisting of a set of routes for vehicles whose total cost is minimum. Evolutionary and swarm intelligent (SI) algorithms play a vital role in solving optimization problems. While the SI algorithms perform search, the diversity between the solutions they exploit is very important. This is because of the need to avoid early convergence and to get an appropriate balance between the exploration and exploitation. Therefore, it is important to check how far the solutions are diverse. In this paper, we measure the similarity between solutions, which ABC exploits while optimizing VRP. The similar solutions found are discarded at the end of the iteration and only unique solutions are passed on to the next iteration. The bees of discarded solutions become scouts and they start searching for new solutions. This process is continued and results show that the solution is optimized at lesser number of iterations but with the overhead of computing similarity in all the iterations. The problem instance from Solomon benchmarked dataset has been used for evaluating the presented methodology.
Abstract: Currently, in Colombia is arising a problem related to collecting used lubricant oils which are generated by the increment of the vehicle fleet. This situation does not allow a proper disposal of this type of waste, which in turn results in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, through the comparative analysis of various heuristics, the best solution to the VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) was selected by comparing costs and times for the collection of used lubricant oils in the city of Pereira, Colombia; since there is no presence of management companies engaged in the direct administration of the collection of this pollutant. To achieve this aim, six proposals of through methods of solution of two phases were discussed. First, the assignment of the group of generator points of the residue was made (previously identified). Proposals one and four of through methods are based on the closeness of points. The proposals two and five are using the scanning method and the proposals three and six are considering the restriction of the capacity of collection vehicle. Subsequently, the routes were developed - in the first three proposals by the Clarke and Wright's savings algorithm and in the following proposals by the Traveling Salesman optimization mathematical model. After applying techniques, a comparative analysis of the results was performed and it was determined which of the proposals presented the most optimal values in terms of the distance, cost and travel time.
Abstract: In this paper, we present the use of the discriminant analysis to select evolutionary algorithms that better solve instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. We use indicators as independent variables to obtain the classification criteria, and the best algorithm from the generic genetic algorithm (GA), random search (RS), steady-state genetic algorithm (SSGA), and sexual genetic algorithm (SXGA) as the dependent variable for the classification. The discriminant classification was trained with classic instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows obtained from the Solomon benchmark. We obtained a classification of the discriminant analysis of 66.7%.
Abstract: This paper introduces symbiotic organism search (SOS)
for solving capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). SOS is a new
approach in metaheuristics fields and never been used to solve discrete
problems. A sophisticated decoding method to deal with a discrete
problem setting in CVRP is applied using the basic symbiotic
organism search (SOS) framework. The performance of the algorithm
was evaluated on a set of benchmark instances and compared results
with best known solution. The computational results show that the
proposed algorithm can produce good solution as a preliminary
testing. These results indicated that the proposed SOS can be applied
as an alternative to solve the capacitated vehicle routing problem.
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the vehicle routing problem
with mixed fleet of conventional and heterogenous electric vehicles
and time dependent charging costs, denoted VRP-HFCC, in which
a set of geographically scattered customers have to be served by a
mixed fleet of vehicles composed of a heterogenous fleet of Electric
Vehicles (EVs), having different battery capacities and operating
costs, and Conventional Vehicles (CVs). We include the possibility
of charging EVs in the available charging stations during the routes
in order to serve all customers. Each charging station offers charging
service with a known technology of chargers and time dependent
charging costs. Charging stations are also subject to operating time
windows constraints. EVs are not necessarily compatible with all
available charging technologies and a partial charging is allowed.
Intermittent charging at the depot is also allowed provided that
constraints related to the electricity grid are satisfied.
The objective is to minimize the number of employed vehicles and
then minimize the total travel and charging costs.
In this study, we present a Mixed Integer Programming Model and
develop a Charging Routing Heuristic and a Local Search Heuristic
based on the Inject-Eject routine with different insertion methods. All
heuristics are tested on real data instances.
Abstract: A key element of many distribution systems is the
routing and scheduling of vehicles servicing a set of customers. A
wide variety of exact and approximate algorithms have been
proposed for solving the vehicle routing problems (VRP). Exact
algorithms can only solve relatively small problems of VRP, which is
classified as NP-Hard. Several approximate algorithms have proven
successful in finding a feasible solution not necessarily optimum.
Although different parts of the problem are stochastic in nature; yet,
limited work relevant to the application of discrete event system
simulation has addressed the problem. Presented here is optimization
using simulation of VRP; where, a simplified problem has been
developed in the ExtendSimTM simulation environment; where,
ExtendSimTM evolutionary optimizer is used to minimize the total
transportation cost of the problem. Results obtained from the model
are very satisfactory. Further complexities of the problem are
proposed for consideration in the future.
Abstract: Medical services are usually provided in hospitals; however, in developing country, some rural residences have fewer opportunities to access in healthcare services due to the limitation of transportation communication. Therefore, in Thailand, there are charitable organizations operating to provide medical treatments to these people by shifting the medical services to operation sites; this is commonly known as mobile medical service. Operation routing is important for the organization to reduce its transportation cost in order to focus more on other important activities; for instance, the development of medical apparatus. VRP is applied to solve the problem of high transportation cost of the studied organization with the searching techniques of saving algorithm to find the minimum total distance of operation route and satisfy available time constraints of voluntary medical staffs.
Abstract: We present a non standard Euclidean vehicle
routing problem adding a level of clustering, and we revisit the use
of self-organizing maps as a tool which naturally handles such
problems. We present how they can be used as a main operator
into an evolutionary algorithm to address two conflicting
objectives of route length and distance from customers to bus stops
minimization and to deal with capacity constraints. We apply the
approach to a real-life case of combined clustering and vehicle
routing for the transportation of the 780 employees of an
enterprise. Basing upon a geographic information system we
discuss the influence of road infrastructures on the solutions
Abstract: The paper proposes and validates a new method of solving instances of the vehicle routing problem (VRP). The approach is based on a multiple agent system paradigm. The paper contains the VRP formulation, an overview of the multiple agent environment used and a description of the proposed implementation. The approach is validated experimentally. The experiment plan and the discussion of experiment results follow.
Abstract: In this work, we propose a hybrid heuristic in order to
solve the Team Orienteering Problem (TOP). Given a set of points (or
customers), each with associated score (profit or benefit), and a team
that has a fixed number of members, the problem to solve is to visit a
subset of points in order to maximize the total collected score. Each
member performs a tour starting at the start point, visiting distinct
customers and the tour terminates at the arrival point. In addition,
each point is visited at most once, and the total time in each tour
cannot be greater than a given value. The proposed heuristic combines
beam search and a local optimization strategy. The algorithm was
tested on several sets of instances and encouraging results were
Abstract: Set covering problem is a classical problem in
computer science and complexity theory. It has many applications,
such as airline crew scheduling problem, facilities location problem,
vehicle routing, assignment problem, etc. In this paper, three
different techniques are applied to solve set covering problem.
Firstly, a mathematical model of set covering problem is introduced
and solved by using optimization solver, LINGO. Secondly, the
Genetic Algorithm Toolbox available in MATLAB is used to solve
set covering problem. And lastly, an ant colony optimization method
is programmed in MATLAB programming language. Results
obtained from these methods are presented in tables. In order to
assess the performance of the techniques used in this project, the
benchmark problems available in open literature are used.
Abstract: The National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society is
responsible for providing blood to hospitals all over the country.
When any hospital needs blood, it will have to send the vehicle to
pick up at the NBC. There are a lot of vehicles to pick up blood at the
NBC every day. Each vehicle is usually empty for inbound trip and a
little loaded for outbound. The NBC realized such waste or loss and
there have been the third party offered to distribute blood and charge
for fee. This paper proposes to apply the vehicle routing problem
(VRP) for estimating the fair price. The idea is tested with the real
data during seven-day period of 6 – 12 July 2010 to estimate the fair
price for transporting blood in Bangkok Metropolitan Region.
Abstract: In this paper, the Tabu search algorithm is used to
solve a transportation problem which consists of determining the
shortest routes with the appropriate vehicle capacity to facilitate the
travel of the students attending the University of Mauritius. The aim
of this work is to minimize the total cost of the distance travelled by
the vehicles in serving all the customers. An initial solution is
obtained by the TOUR algorithm which basically constructs a giant
tour containing all the customers and partitions it in an optimal way
so as to produce a set of feasible routes. The Tabu search algorithm
then makes use of a search procedure, a swapping procedure and the
intensification and diversification mechanism to find the best set of
Abstract: The shortest path (SP) problem concerns with finding the shortest path from a specific origin to a specified destination in a given network while minimizing the total cost associated with the path. This problem has widespread applications. Important applications of the SP problem include vehicle routing in transportation systems particularly in the field of in-vehicle Route Guidance System (RGS) and traffic assignment problem (in transportation planning). Well known applications of evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have come up to solve complex optimization problems to overcome the shortcomings of existing shortest path analysis methods. It has been reported by various researchers that PSO performs better than other evolutionary optimization algorithms in terms of success rate and solution quality. Further Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as key information systems for geospatial data analysis and visualization. This research paper is focused towards the application of PSO for solving the shortest path problem between multiple points of interest (POI) based on spatial data of Allahabad City and traffic speed data collected using GPS. Geovisualization of results of analysis is carried out in GIS.
Abstract: The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a famous combinatorial optimization problem. Because of its well-known difficulty, metaheuristics are the most appropriate methods to tackle large and realistic instances. The goal of this paper is to highlight the key ideas for designing VRP metaheuristics according to the following criteria: efficiency, speed, robustness, and ability to take advantage of the problem structure. Such elements can obviously be used to build solution methods for other combinatorial optimization problems, at least in the deterministic field.