Dynamic Economic Dispatch Constrained by Wind Power Weibull Distribution: A Here-and-Now Strategy

In this paper, a Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) model is developed for the system consisting of both thermal generators and wind turbines. The inclusion of a significant amount of wind energy into power systems has resulted in additional constraints on DED to accommodate the intermittent nature of the output. The probability of stochastic wind power based on the Weibull probability density function is included in the model as a constraint; A Here-and-Now Approach. The Environmental Protection Agency-s hourly emission target, which gives the maximum emission during the day, is used as a constraint to reduce the atmospheric pollution. A 69-bus test system with non-smooth cost function is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model compared with static economic dispatch model with including the wind power.

Re-Design of Load Shedding Schemes of the Kosovo Power System

This paper discusses aspects of re-design of loadshedding schemes with respect to actual developments in the Kosovo power system. Load-shedding is a type of emergency control that is designed to ensure system stability by reducing power system load to match the power generation supply. This paper presents a new adaptive load-shedding scheme that provides emergency protection against excess frequency decline, in cases when the Kosovo power system might be disconnected from the regional transmission network. The proposed load-shedding scheme uses the local frequency rate information to adapt the load-shedding pattern to suit the size and location of the occurring disturbance. The proposed scheme is tested in a software simulation on a large scale PSS/E model which represents nine power system areas of Southeast Europe including the Kosovo power system.

Application of Neuro-Fuzzy Dynamic Programming to Improve the Reactive Power and Voltage Profile of a Distribution Substation

Improving the reactive power and voltage profile of a distribution substation is investigated in this paper. The purpose is to properly determination of the shunt capacitors on/off status and suitable tap changer (TC) position of a substation transformer. In addition, the limitation of secondary bus voltage, the maximum allowable number of switching operation in a day for on load tap changer and on/off status of capacitors are taken into account. To achieve these goals, an artificial neural network (ANN) is designed to provide preliminary scheduling. Input of ANN is active and reactive powers of transformer and its primary and secondary bus voltages. The output of ANN is capacitors on/off status and TC position. The preliminary schedule is further refined by fuzzy dynamic programming in order to reach the final schedule. The operation of proposed method in Q/V improving is compared with the results obtained by operator operation in a distribution substation.

Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

3D Numerical Simulation on Annular Diffuser Temperature Distribution Enhancement by Different Twist Arrangement

The influence of twist arrangement on the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with twisted rectangular hub is investigated. Different pitches (Y = 120 mm, 100 mm, 80 mm, and 60 mm) for the twist arrangements are simulated to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for the hub arrangements are kept constant. The result reveals that using twisted rectangular hub insert with different pitches will force the temperature to distribute in a circular direction. However, temperature distribution will be enhanced with the length pitch increases.

The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Lightpipe using a Simulation Software

A lightpipe is an about 99 percent specular reflective mirror pipe or duct that is used for the transmission of the daylight from the outside into a building. The lightpipes are usually used in the daylighting buildings, in the residential, industrial and commercial sectors. This paper is about the performances of a lightpipe installed in a laboratory (3 m x 2.6 m x 3 m) without windows. The aim is to analyse the luminous intensity distribution for several sky/sun conditions. The lightpipe was monitored during the year 2006. The lightpipe is 1 m long and the diameter of the top collector and of the internal diffuser device is 0.25 m. In the laboratory there are seven illuminance sensors: one external is located on the roof of the laboratory and six internal sensors are connected to a data acquisition system. The internal sensors are positioned under the internal diffusive device at an height of 0.85 m from the floor to simulate a working plane. The numerical data are obtained through a simulation software. This paper shows the comparison between the experimental and numerical results concerning the behavior of the lightpipe.

Replacement of Power Transformers basis on Diagnostic Results and Load Forecasting

This paper describes interconnection between technical and economical making decision. The reason of this dealing could be different: poor technical condition, change of substation (electrical network) regime, power transformer owner budget deficit and increasing of tariff on electricity. Establishing of recommended practice as well as to give general advice and guidance in economical sector, testing, diagnostic power transformers to establish its conditions, identify problems and provide potential remedies.

Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement

Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy System of Isolated Islands in Smart-Grid Scenario - A Case Study in Indian Context

This paper focuses on the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources available in remote isolated islands of Sundarban-24 Parganas-South of Eastern part of India to National Grid of conventional power supply to give a Smart-Grid scenario. Before grid-integration, feasibility of optimization of hybrid renewable energy system is monitored through an Intelligent Controller proposed to be installed at Moushuni Island of Sundarban. The objective is to ensure the reliability and efficiency of the system to optimize the utilization of the hybrid renewable energy sources and also a proposition of how theses isolated Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems at remote islands can be grid-connected is analyzed towards vision of green smart-grid.

Electricity Power Planning: the Role of Wind Energy

Combining energy efficiency with renewable energy sources constitutes a key strategy for a sustainable future. The wind power sector stands out as a fundamental element for the achievement of the European renewable objectives and Portugal is no exception to the increase of the wind energy for the electricity generation. This work proposes an optimization model for the long range electricity power planning in a system similar to the Portuguese one, where the expected impacts of the increasing installed wind power on the operating performance of thermal power plants are taken into account. The main results indicate that the increasing penetration of wind power in the electricity system will have significant effects on the combined cycle gas power plants operation and on the theoretically expected cost reduction and environmental gains. This research demonstrated the need to address the impact that energy sources with variable output may have, not only on the short-term operational planning, but especially on the medium to long range planning activities, in order to meet the strategic objectives for the energy sector.

Fractal Patterns for Power Quality Detection Using Color Relational Analysis Based Classifier

This paper proposes fractal patterns for power quality (PQ) detection using color relational analysis (CRA) based classifier. Iterated function system (IFS) uses the non-linear interpolation in the map and uses similarity maps to construct various fractal patterns of power quality disturbances, including harmonics, voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage sag involving harmonics, voltage swell involving harmonics, and voltage interruption. The non-linear interpolation functions (NIFs) with fractal dimension (FD) make fractal patterns more distinguishing between normal and abnormal voltage signals. The classifier based on CRA discriminates the disturbance events in a power system. Compared with the wavelet neural networks, the test results will show accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for detecting disturbing events.

Model of High-Speed Train Energy Consumption

In the hardening energy context, the transport sector which constitutes a large worldwide energy demand has to be improving for decrease energy demand and global warming impacts. In a controversial situation where subsists an increasing demand for long-distance and high-speed travels, high-speed trains offer many advantages, as consuming significantly less energy than road or air transports. At the project phase of new rail infrastructures, it is nowadays important to characterize accurately the energy that will be induced by its operation phase, in addition to other more classical criteria as construction costs and travel time. Current literature consumption models used to estimate railways operation phase are obsolete or not enough accurate for taking into account the newest train or railways technologies. In this paper, an updated model of consumption for high-speed is proposed, based on experimental data obtained from full-scale tests performed on a new high-speed line. The assessment of the model is achieved by identifying train parameters and measured power consumptions for more than one hundred train routes. Perspectives are then discussed to use this updated model for accurately assess the energy impact of future railway infrastructures.

Development of Neural Network Prediction Model of Energy Consumption

In the oil and gas industry, energy prediction can help the distributor and customer to forecast the outgoing and incoming gas through the pipeline. It will also help to eliminate any uncertainties in gas metering for billing purposes. The objective of this paper is to develop Neural Network Model for energy consumption and analyze the performance model. This paper provides a comprehensive review on published research on the energy consumption prediction which focuses on structures and the parameters used in developing Neural Network models. This paper is then focused on the parameter selection of the neural network prediction model development for energy consumption and analysis on the result. The most reliable model that gives the most accurate result is proposed for the prediction. The result shows that the proposed neural network energy prediction model is able to demonstrate an adequate performance with least Root Mean Square Error.

Decoupled, Reduced Order Model for Double Output Induction Generator Using Integral Manifolds and Iterative Separation Theory

In this paper presents a technique for developing the computational efficiency in simulating double output induction generators (DOIG) with two rotor circuits where stator transients are to be included. Iterative decomposition is used to separate the flux– Linkage equations into decoupled fast and slow subsystems, after which the model order of the fast subsystems is reduced by neglecting the heavily damped fast transients caused by the second rotor circuit using integral manifolds theory. The two decoupled subsystems along with the equation for the very slowly changing slip constitute a three time-scale model for the machine which resulted in increasing computational speed. Finally, the proposed method of reduced order in this paper is compared with the other conventional methods in linear and nonlinear modes and it is shown that this method is better than the other methods regarding simulation accuracy and speed.

Multimachine Power System Stabilizers Design Using PSO Algorithm

In this paper, multiobjective design of multi-machine Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is presented. The stabilizers are tuned to simultaneously shift the lightly damped and undamped electro-mechanical modes of all machines to a prescribed zone in the s-plane. A multiobjective problem is formulated to optimize a composite set of objective functions comprising the damping factor, and the damping ratio of the lightly damped electromechanical modes. The PSSs parameters tuning problem is converted to an optimization problem which is solved by PSO with the eigenvalue-based multiobjective function. The proposed PSO based PSSs is tested on a multimachine power system under different operating conditions and disturbances through eigenvalue analysis and some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance.

A Novel Optimal Setting for Directional over Current Relay Coordination using Particle Swarm Optimization

Over Current Relays (OCRs) and Directional Over Current Relays (DOCRs) are widely used for the radial protection and ring sub transmission protection systems and for distribution systems. All previous work formulates the DOCR coordination problem either as a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) for TDS and Ip or as a Linear Programming (LP) for TDS using recently a social behavior (Particle Swarm Optimization techniques) introduced to the work. In this paper, a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) technique is discussed for the optimal settings of DOCRs in power systems as a Non-Linear Programming problem for finding Ip values of the relays and for finding the TDS setting as a linear programming problem. The calculation of the Time Dial Setting (TDS) and the pickup current (Ip) setting of the relays is the core of the coordination study. PSO technique is considered as realistic and powerful solution schemes to obtain the global or quasi global optimum in optimization problem.

An Augmented Automatic Choosing Control with Constrained Input Using Weighted Gradient Optimization Automatic Choosing Functions

In this paper we consider a nonlinear feedback control called augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems with constrained input using weighted gradient optimization automatic choosing functions. Constant term which arises from linearization of a given nonlinear system is treated as a coefficient of a stable zero dynamics. Parameters of the control are suboptimally selected by maximizing the stable region in the sense of Lyapunov with the aid of a genetic algorithm. This approach is applied to a field excitation control problem of power system to demonstrate the splendidness of the AACC. Simulation results show that the new controller can improve performance remarkably well.

Design Calculation and Performance Testing of Heating Coil in Induction Surface Hardening Machine

The induction hardening machines are utilized in the industries which modify machine parts and tools needed to achieve high ware resistance. This paper describes the model of induction heating process design of inverter circuit and the results of induction surface hardening of heating coil. In the design of heating coil, the shape and the turn numbers of the coil are very important design factors because they decide the overall operating performance of induction heater including resonant frequency, Q factor, efficiency and power factor. The performance will be tested by experiments in some cases high frequency induction hardening machine.

Application of Neural Networks in Power Systems; A Review

The electric power industry is currently undergoing an unprecedented reform. One of the most exciting and potentially profitable recent developments is increasing usage of artificial intelligence techniques. The intention of this paper is to give an overview of using neural network (NN) techniques in power systems. According to the growth rate of NNs application in some power system subjects, this paper introduce a brief overview in fault diagnosis, security assessment, load forecasting, economic dispatch and harmonic analyzing. Advantages and disadvantages of using NNs in above mentioned subjects and the main challenges in these fields have been explained, too.

Modification of the Conventional Power Flow Analysis for the Deployment of an HVDC Grid System in the Indian Subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is facing a massive challenge with regards to the energy security in member countries, i.e. providing a reliable source of electricity to facilitate development across various sectors of the economy and thereby achieve the developmental targets it has set for itself. A highly precarious situation exists in the subcontinent which is observed in the series of system failures which most of the times leads to system collapses-blackouts. To mitigate the issues related with energy security as well as keep in check the increasing supply demand gap, a possible solution that stands in front of the subcontinent is the deployment of an interconnected electricity ‘Supergrid’ designed to carry huge quanta of power across the sub continent as well as provide the infra structure for RES integration. This paper assesses the need and conditions for a Supergrid deployment and consequently proposes a meshed topology based on VSC HVDC converters for the Supergrid modeling.