Abstract: In this work, a Multi-Level Artificial Bee Colony
(called MLABC) for optimizing numerical test functions is presented.
In MLABC, two species are used. The first species employs n
colonies where each of them optimizes the complete solution vector.
The cooperation between these colonies is carried out by exchanging
information through a leader colony, which contains a set of elite
bees. The second species uses a cooperative approach in which the
complete solution vector is divided to k sub-vectors, and each of
these sub-vectors is optimized by a colony. The cooperation between
these colonies is carried out by compiling sub-vectors into the
complete solution vector. Finally, the cooperation between two
species is obtained by exchanging information. The proposed
algorithm is tested on a set of well-known test functions. The results
show that MLABC algorithm provides efficiency and robustness to
solve numerical functions.
Abstract: So much energy is used in high rise buildings to fulfill
the basic needs of users such as lighting and thermal comfort.
Malaysia has hot and humid climate, buildings especially high rise
buildings receive unnecessary solar radiation that cause more solar
heat gain. Energy use specially electricity consumption in high rise
buildings has increased. There have been growing concerns about
energy consumption and its effect on environment. Building, energy
and the environment are important issues that the designers should
consider to them. Self protected form is one of possible ways against
the impact of solar radiation in high rise buildings. The Energy
performance of building envelopes was investigated in term of the
Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV ).In this paper, the amount
of OTTV reduction was calculated through OTTV Equations to
clear the effectiveness of self shading strategy on minimizing energy
consumption for cooling interior spaces in high rise buildings which
has considerable envelope areas against solar radiation. Also increasing
the optimum window area was investigated using self-shading
strategy in designing high rise buildings. As result, the significant
reduction in OTTV was shown based on WWR.In addition slight
increase was demonstrated in WWR that can influence on visible
comfort interior spaces.
Abstract: Over half of the total electricity consumption is used in buildings. Air-conditioning and electric lighting are the two main resources of electricity consumption in high rise buildings. One way to reduce electricity consumption would be to limit heat gain into buildings, therefore reduce the demand for air-conditioning during hot summer months especially in hot regions. On the other hand natural daylight can be used to reduce the use of electricity for artificial lighting. In this paper effective factors on minimizing heat gain and achieving required day light were reviewed .As daylight always accompanied by solar heat gain. Also interactions between heat gain and daylight were discussed through previous studies and equations which are related to heat gain and day lighting especially in high rise buildings. As a result importance of building-s form and its component on energy consumption in buildings were clarified.
Abstract: lack of convenience condition is one of the problems
in open spaces in hot and dry regions. Nowadays parks and green
landscapes was designed and constructed without any attention to
convenience condition. If this process continues, Citizens will encounter
with some problems. Harsh climatic condition decreases the
efficiency of people-s activities. However there is hard environment
condition in hot and dry regions, Convenience condition has been
provided in Iranian traditional architecture by using techniques and
methods. In this research at the first step characteristics of Iranian
garden that can effect on creating sustainable spaces were
investigated through observation method. Pleasure space in cities will
be created with using these methods and techniques in future cities.
Furthermore the comparison between Iranian garden and landscape in
today-s cities demonstrate the effectiveness of Iranian garden
characteristics on sustainable spaces. Iranian architects used simple
and available methods for creating open architectural spaces. In
addition desirable conditions were provided with taking in to account
both physically and spiritually. Parks and landscapes in future cities
can be designed and constructed with respect to architectural
techniques that used in Iranian gardens in hot and arid regions.