Abstract: In recent years various types of electric vehicles
has gained again increasing attention as an environmentally
benign technology in transport. Especially for urban areas with
high local pollution this Zero-emission technology (at the point
of use) is considered to provide proper solutions. Yet, the bad
economics and the limited driving ranges are still major barriers
for a broader market penetration of battery electric vehicles
(BEV) and of fuel cell vehicles (FCV). The major result of our
analyses is that the most important precondition for a further
dissemination of BEV in urban areas are emission-free zones.
This is an instrument which allows the promotion of BEV
without providing excessive subsidies. In addition, it is
important to note that the full benefits of EV can only be
harvested if the electricity used is produced from renewable
energy sources. That is to say, it has to be ensured that the use of
BEV in urban areas is clearly linked to a green electricity
purchase model. And moreover, the introduction of a CO2-
emission-based tax system would support this requirement.
Abstract: Electric vehicles are considered as technology which
can significantly reduce the problems related to road transport such
as increasing GHG emissions, air pollutions and energy import
The core objective of this paper is to analyze the current energetic,
ecological and economic characteristics of different types of electric
The major conclusions of this analysis are: The high investments
cost are the major barrier for broad market breakthrough of battery
electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. For battery electric vehicles
also the limited driving range states a key obstacle. The analyzed
hybrids could in principle serve as a bridging technology. However,
due to their tank-to-wheel emissions they cannot state a proper
solution for urban areas.
Finally, the most important perception is that also battery electric
vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are environmentally benign solution if
the primary fuel source is renewable.