Abstract: The built-up area is a significant proxy to measure regional economic growth and reflects the Gross Provincial Product (GPP). However, an up-to-date and reliable database of built-up areas is not always available, especially in developing countries. The cloud-based geospatial analysis platform such as Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides an opportunity with accessibility and computational power for those countries to generate the built-up data. Therefore, this study aims to extract the built-up areas in Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC), Thailand using day and nighttime satellite imagery based on GEE facilities. The normalized indices were generated from Landsat 8 surface reflectance dataset, including Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Built-up Index (BUI), and Modified Built-up Index (MBUI). These indices were applied to identify built-up areas in EEC. The result shows that MBUI performs better than BUI and NDBI, with the highest accuracy of 0.85 and Kappa of 0.82. Moreover, the overall accuracy of classification was improved from 79% to 90%, and error of total built-up area was decreased from 29% to 0.7%, after night-time light data from the Visible and Infrared Imaging Suite (VIIRS) Day Night Band (DNB). The results suggest that MBUI with night-time light imagery is appropriate for built-up area extraction and be utilize for further study of socioeconomic impacts of regional development policy over the EEC region.
Abstract: The coordination and development of ecological-living-industrial land uses are the premise foundations for the formulation and implementation of the current land space planning, and more attention should be paid to plateau mountainous areas. This research is based on spatial analysis technology and landscape pattern index method taking Yuxi city, a typical mountainous plateau as the research area. By using relevant software such as ArcGIS10.5, Fragstats 4.2 and the four remote sensing images of Yuxi city in 1980, 1995, 2005 and 2015, the temporal-spatial evolution and differentiation pattern of ecological-living-industrial land applications have been discussed. The research results show that: (1) From the perspective of land use type change, ecological land of Yuxi city has been the main source of land from 1980 to 2015, which totally occupies more than 78%. During this period, the spatial structure of the ecological-living-industrial land changed significantly, namely, the living land. Its land area increased significantly from 0.83% of the total area in 1980 to 1.25% in 2015, the change range of ecological land and industrial land is relatively small. (2) In terms of land use landscape pattern transfer matrix, from 1980 to 2015, the industrial land and ecological land in Yuxi city have been gradually transferred to living land. (3) In the aspect of landscape pattern changes, various landscape pattern indexes of Yuxi city indicate that the fragmentation degree of landscape pattern of the ecological-living-industrial land in this region is increasing. The degree of agglomeration goes down, and the landscape types have changed from being relatively simple to relatively rich. The landscape is more diverse, but the patch size is uneven, meanwhile, the integrity of the ecological space is destroyed.
Abstract: Today, a consistent segment of the world’s population lives in urban areas, and this proportion will vastly increase in the next decades. Therefore, understanding the key trends in urbanization, likely to unfold over the coming years, is crucial to the implementation of sustainable urban strategies. In parallel, the daily amount of digital data produced will be expanding at an exponential rate during the following years. The analysis of various types of data sets and its derived applications have incredible potential across different crucial sectors such as healthcare, housing, transportation, energy, and education. Nevertheless, in city development, architects and urban planners appear to rely mostly on traditional and analogical techniques of data collection. This paper investigates the prospective of the data science field, appearing to be a formidable resource to assist city managers in identifying strategies to enhance the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of our urban areas. The collection of different new layers of information would definitely enhance planners' capabilities to comprehend more in-depth urban phenomena such as gentrification, land use definition, mobility, or critical infrastructural issues. Specifically, the research results correlate economic, commercial, demographic, and housing data with the purpose of defining the youth economic discomfort index. The statistical composite index provides insights regarding the economic disadvantage of citizens aged between 18 years and 29 years, and results clearly display that central urban zones and more disadvantaged than peripheral ones. The experimental set up selected the city of Rome as the testing ground of the whole investigation. The methodology aims at applying statistical and spatial analysis to construct a composite index supporting informed data-driven decisions for urban planning.
Abstract: Brahmaputra River is known according to the Hindu mythology the son of the Lord Brahma. According to this name, the river Brahmaputra creates mass destruction during the monsoon season in Assam, India. It is a state situated in North-East part of India. This is one of the essential states out of the seven countries of eastern India, where almost all entire Brahmaputra flow carried out. The other states carry their tributaries. In the present case study, the spatial analysis performed in this specific case the number of MODIS data are acquired. In the method of detecting the change, the spray content was found during heavy rainfall and in the flooded monsoon season. By this method, particularly the analysis over the Brahmaputra outflow determines the flooded season. The charged particle-associated in aerosol content genuinely verifies the heavy water content below the ground surface, which is validated by trend analysis through rainfall spectrum data. This is confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position of Brahmaputra River. Further, a Hyperion Hyperspectral 30 m resolution data were used to scan the sediment deposits, which is also confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position.
Abstract: Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is one of the main technologies for generating high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). DTMs are crucial to several applications, such as topographic mapping, flood zone delineation, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrological modelling, spatial analysis, etc. Laser scanning system generates irregularly spaced three-dimensional cloud of points. Raw ALS data are mainly ground points (that represent the bare earth) and non-ground points (that represent buildings, trees, cars, etc.). Removing all the non-ground points from the raw data is referred to as filtering. Filtering heavily forested areas is considered a difficult and challenging task as the canopy stops laser pulses from reaching the terrain surface. This research presents an approach for removing non-ground points from raw ALS data in densely forested areas. Smoothing splines are exploited to interpolate and fit the noisy ALS data. The presented filter utilizes a weight function to allocate weights for each point of the data. Furthermore, unlike most of the methods, the presented filtering algorithm is designed to be automatic. Three different forested areas in the United Kingdom are used to assess the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the generated DTMs from the filtered data are accurate (when compared against reference terrain data) and the performance of the method is stable for all the heavily forested data samples. The average root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.35 m.
Abstract: Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana— a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).
Abstract: Wind energy is associated with many geographical factors including wind speed, climate change, surface topography, environmental impacts, and several economic factors, most notably the advancement of wind technology and energy prices. It is the fastest-growing and least economically expensive method for generating electricity. Wind energy generation is directly related to the characteristics of spatial wind. Therefore, the feasibility study for the wind energy conversion system is based on the value of the energy obtained relative to the initial investment and the cost of operation and maintenance. In Kuwait, wind energy is an appropriate choice as a source of energy generation. It can be used in groundwater extraction in agricultural areas such as Al-Abdali in the north and Al-Wafra in the south, or in fresh and brackish groundwater fields or remote and isolated locations such as border areas and projects away from conventional power electricity services, to take advantage of alternative energy, reduce pollutants, and reduce energy production costs. The study covers the State of Kuwait with an exception of metropolitan area. Climatic data were attained through the readings of eight distributed monitoring stations affiliated with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). The data were used to assess the daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual available wind energy accessible for utilization. The researchers applied the Suitability Model to analyze the study by using the ArcGIS program. It is a model of spatial analysis that compares more than one location based on grading weights to choose the most suitable one. The study criteria are: the average annual wind speed, land use, topography of land, distance from the main road networks, urban areas. According to the previous criteria, the four proposed locations to establish wind farm projects are selected based on the weights of the degree of suitability (excellent, good, average, and poor). The percentage of areas that represents the most suitable locations with an excellent rank (4) is 8% of Kuwait’s area. It is relatively distributed as follows: Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdeba, Al-Salmi (5.22%), Al-Abdali (1.22%), Umm al-Hayman (0.70%), North Wafra and Al-Shaqeeq (0.86%). The study recommends to decision-makers to consider the proposed location (No.1), (Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdaba, and Al-Salmi) as the most suitable location for future development of wind farms in Kuwait, this location is economically feasible.
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. Solid Waste Management has been an important environmental problem in developing countries because of the difficulties in finding sustainable solutions for solid wastes. Therefore, more efforts are needed to be implemented to overcome this problem. Lebanon has suffered a severe solid waste management problem in 2015, and a new landfill site was proposed to solve the existing problem. The study aims to identify and locate the most suitable area to construct a landfill taking into consideration the sustainable development to overcome the present situation and protect the future demands. Throughout the article, a landfill site selection methodology was discussed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Several environmental, economic and social factors were taken as criterion for selection of a landfill. Soil, geology, and LUC (Land Use and Land Cover) indices with the Sustainable Development Index were main inputs to create the final map of Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) for landfill site. Different factors were determined to define each index. Input data of each factor was managed, visualized and analyzed using GIS. GIS was used as an important tool to identify suitable areas for landfill. Spatial Analysis (SA), Analysis and Management GIS tools were implemented to produce input maps capable of identifying suitable areas related to each index. Weight has been assigned to each factor in the same index, and the main weights were assigned to each index used. The combination of the different indices map generates the final output map of ESA. The output map was reclassified into three suitability classes of low, moderate, and high suitability. Results showed different locations suitable for the construction of a landfill. Results also reflected the importance of GIS and MCDA in helping decision makers finding a solution of solid wastes by a sanitary landfill.
Abstract: Accessibility analysis, examining people’s ability to access facilities and destinations, is a fundamental assessment for transport planning, policy making, and social exclusion research. Dynamic accessibility which measures accessibility in real-time traffic environment has been an advanced accessibility indicator in transport research. It is also a useful indicator to help travelers to understand travel time daily variability, assists traffic engineers to monitor traffic congestions, and finally develop effective strategies in order to mitigate traffic congestions. This research involved real-time traffic information by collecting travel time data with 15-minute interval via the TomTom® API. A framework for measuring dynamic accessibility was then developed based on the gravity theory and accessibility dichotomy theory through space and time interpolation. Finally, the dynamic accessibility can be derived at any given time and location under dynamic accessibility spatial analysis framework.
Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate how the use of Network Theory can be applied to a very interesting and complex urban situation: The parts of a city which may have some patrimonial value, but because of their lack of relevant architectural elements, they are not considered to be historic in a conventional sense. In this paper, we use the suburb of La Villaflora in the city of Quito, Ecuador as our case study. We first propose a system of indicators as a tool to characterize and quantify the historic value of a geographic area. Then, we apply these indicators to the suburb of La Villaflora and use Network Theory to understand and propose actions.
Abstract: Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provides estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines-BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.
Abstract: The objective of the paper is the study of geographic, economic and educational variables and their contribution to determine the position of each member-state among the EU-28 countries based on the values of seven variables as given by Eurostat. The Data Analysis methods of Multiple Factorial Correspondence Analysis (MFCA) Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis have been used. The cross tabulation tables of data consist of the values of seven variables for the 28 countries for 2014. The data are manipulated using the CHIC Analysis V 1.1 software package. The results of this program using MFCA and Ascending Hierarchical Classification are given in arithmetic and graphical form. For comparison reasons with the same data the Factor procedure of Statistical package IBM SPSS 20 has been used. The numerical and graphical results presented with tables and graphs, demonstrate the agreement between the two methods. The most important result is the study of the relation between the 28 countries and the position of each country in groups or clouds, which are formed according to the values of the corresponding variables.
Abstract: This paper will explore formation of HCl aerosol at atmospheric boundary layers and encourages the uptake of environmental modeling systems (EMSs) as a practice evaluation of gaseous emissions (“framework measures”) from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The conceptual model predicts greenhouse gas emissions to ecological points beyond landfill site operations. It focuses on incorporation traditional knowledge into baseline information for both measurement data and the mathematical results, regarding parameters influence model variable inputs. The paper has simplified parameters of aerosol processes based on the more complex aerosol process computations. The simple model can be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian rural dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds is taken into account photochemical formulation with exposure effects according to HCl concentrations as starting point of risk assessment. The discussion set out distinctly aspect of sustainability in reflection inputs, outputs, and modes of impact on the environment. Thereby, models incorporate abiotic and biotic species to broaden the scope of integration for both quantification impact and assessment risks. The later environmental obligations suggest either a recommendation or a decision of what is a legislative should be achieved for mitigation measures of landfill gas (LFG) ultimately.
Abstract: In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected data from selected fast food restaurants and full service restaurants for tracking changes in the occurrence of foodborne illness risk factors. This paper discussed how we customized spatial random sampling method by considering financial position and availability of FDA resources, and how we enriched restaurants data with location. Location information of restaurants provides opportunity for quantitatively determining random sampling within non-government units (e.g.: 240 kilometers around each data-collector). Spatial analysis also could optimize data-collectors’ work plans and resource allocation. Spatial analytic and processing platform helped us handling the spatial random sampling challenges. Our method fits in FDA’s ability to pinpoint features of foodservice establishments, and reduced both time and expense on data collection.
Abstract: Rapid population growth, urbanization and
industrialization are known as the most important factors of
environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes
are also within the most important environment problems. One of the
main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best
site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information
System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS
has the ability of imitating necessary economic, environmental and
political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection
of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of
environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for
engineering/economic factors for site selection of landfill areas and
using GIS for a decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill
areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/Turkey city,
Güzelyurt district practice.
Abstract: Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital
buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial
relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require
specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and selfinnovation
through the developing technology should survive and
keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In
this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was
strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and
the construction of an additional building was required to meet the
increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial
evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status
before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial
organizations of the building before change and after the change were
analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the
change on space organization parameters were searched by applying
an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software,
Connectivity, Visual Mean Depth, Beta and Visual Integration
analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the
analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the
building increased after the change and the building has become more
explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was
determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in
depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes
considering this problem generally ease spatial use.
Abstract: A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony
amongst economic development, community development, and
environmental protection, through partnership between human and
nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR)
in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil
dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood,
high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve
covering privately managed production forest areas. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation
and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We
used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5
Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use
changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from
each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear
regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission
potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition
area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of
land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014
revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from
natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types,
such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas,
and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at
the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife
Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to
garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land,
open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area,
changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden,
mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural
land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated
that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had
reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the
biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the
area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone
and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2
emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.
Abstract: Taking into account the significance of measuring the
daily use of the study space in the libraries in order to develop and
reorganize the space for enhancing the efficiency of the study space,
the current study aimed to apply GIS in analyzing the study halls of
the Central Library and Document Center of Tehran University in
order to determine how study desks and chairs were used by the
students. The study used a combination of survey-descriptive and
system design method. In order to gather the required data, surveydescriptive
method was used. For implementing and entering data
into ArcGIS and analyzing the data and displaying the results on the
maps of the study halls of the library, system design method was
utilized. The design of the spatial database of the use of the study
halls was measured through the extent of occupancy of the space by
the library users and the maps of the study halls of the central library
of Tehran University as the case study. The results showed that
Abooreyhan hall had the highest rate of occupancy of the desks and
chairs compared to the other halls. The Hall of Science and
Technology, with an average occupancy rate of 0.39 for the tables
represented the lowest number of users and Rashid al-Dins hall, and
Science and Technology hall with an average occupancy rate (0.40)
had the lowest number of users for seats. In this study, the
comparison of the space occupied at different periods in the morning,
evenings, afternoons, and several months was performed through
GIS. This system analyzed the space relationships effectively and
efficiently. The output of this study would be used by administrators
and librarians to determine the exact extent of use of the equipment
of the study halls and librarians can use the output map to design the
space more efficiently at the library.
Abstract: This paper aims to represent the commercial activity
of a city taking as source data the social network Foursquare. The
city of Murcia is selected as case study, and the location-based
social network Foursquare is the main source of information. After
carrying out a reorganisation of the user-generated data extracted
from Foursquare, it is possible to graphically display on a map the
various city spaces and venues especially those related to commercial,
food and entertainment sector businesses. The obtained visualisation
provides information about activity patterns in the city of Murcia
according to the people‘s interests and preferences and, moreover,
interesting facts about certain characteristics of the town itself.
Abstract: India holds 17.5% of the world’s population but has
only 2% of the total geographical area of the world where 27.35% of
the area is categorized as wasteland due to lack of or less
groundwater. So there is a demand for excessive groundwater for
agricultural and non agricultural activities to balance its growth rate.
With this in mind, an attempt is made to find the groundwater
potential zone in Gomukhi Nadhi sub basin of Vellar River basin,
TamilNadu, India covering an area of 1146.6 Sq.Km consists of 9
blocks from Peddanaickanpalayam to Virudhachalam in the sub
basin. The thematic maps such as Geology, Geomorphology,
Lineament, Landuse and Landcover and Drainage are prepared for
the study area using IRS P6 data. The collateral data includes rainfall,
water level, soil map are collected for analysis and inference. The
digital elevation model (DEM) is generated using Shuttle Radar
Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the slope of the study area is
obtained. ArcGIS 10.1 acts as a powerful spatial analysis tool to find
out the ground water potential zones in the study area by means of
weighted overlay analysis. Each individual parameter of the thematic
maps are ranked and weighted in accordance with their influence to
increase the water level in the ground. The potential zones in the
study area are classified viz., Very Good, Good, Moderate, Poor with
its aerial extent of 15.67, 381.06, 575.38, 174.49 Sq.Km respectively.