Abstract: In the recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites were most widely used, which are finding wide applications in various field such as automobile, aerospace defense etc., due to their outstanding mechanical properties like low density, light weight, exceptional high levels of strength, stiffness, wear resistance, high temperature resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion and good formability. In the present work, an effort is made to study the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties of aluminum 7075 alloy reinforced with constant weight percentage of naturally occurring mineral beryl and varying weight percentage of graphene. The hybrid composites are developed with 0.5 wt. %, 1wt.%, 1.5 wt.% and 2 wt.% of graphene and 6 wt.% of beryl by stir casting liquid metallurgy route. The cast specimens of unreinforced aluminum alloy and hybrid composite samples were prepared for heat treatment process and subjected to solutionizing treatment (T6) at a temperature of 490±5 oC for 8 hours in a muffle furnace followed by quenching in boiling water. The microstructure analysis of as cast and heat treated hybrid composite specimens are examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tensile test and hardness test of unreinforced aluminum alloy and hybrid composites are examined. The wear behavior is examined by pin-on disc apparatus. The results of as cast specimens and heat treated specimens were compared. The heat treated Al7075-Beryl-Graphene hybrid composite had better properties and significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength, hardness and reduced wear loss when compared to aluminum alloy and as cast hybrid composites.
Abstract: Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.
Abstract: Ledeburitic tool steel Vanadis 6 has been subjected to sub-zero treatment (SZT) at -140 °C and -196 °C, for different durations up to 48 h. The microstructure and hardness have been examined with reference to the same material after room temperature quenching, by using the light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers hardness testing method. The microstructure of the material consists of the martensitic matrix with certain amount of retained austenite, and of several types of carbides – eutectic carbides, secondary carbides, and small globular carbides. SZT reduces the retained austenite amount – this is more effective at -196 °C than at -140 °C. Alternatively, the amount of small globular carbides increases more rapidly after SZT at -140 °C than after the treatment at -140 °C. The hardness of sub-zero treated material is higher than that of conventionally treated steel when tempered at low temperature. Compressive hydrostatic stresses are developed in the retained austenite due to the application of SZT, as a result of more complete martensitic transformation. This is also why the population density of small globular carbides is substantially increased due to the SZT. In contrast, the hardness of sub-zero treated samples decreases more rapidly compared to that of conventionally treated steel, and in addition, sub-zero treated material induces a loss the secondary hardening peak.
Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 plant in Taiwan. There is more concern for the safety of Spent Fuel Pools (SFPs) in Taiwan after Fukushima event. In order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP SFP, by using MELCOR2.1 and SNAP, the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP SFP was performed combined with the mitigation strategy of NEI 06-12 report. There were several steps in this research. First, the Kuosheng NPP SFP models were established by MELCOR2.1/SNAP. Second, the Station Blackout (SBO) analysis of Kuosheng SFP was done by TRACE and MELCOR under the cooling system failure condition. The results showed that the calculations of MELCOR and TRACE were very similar in this case. Second, the mitigation strategy analysis was done with the MELCOR model by following the NEI 06-12 report. The results showed the effectiveness of NEI 06-12 strategy in Kuosheng NPP SFP. Finally, a sensitivity study of SFP quenching was done to check the differences of different water injection time and the phenomena during the quenching. The results showed that if the cladding temperature was over 1600 K, the water injection may have chance to cause the accident more severe with more hydrogen generation. It was because of the oxidation heat and the “Breakaway” effect of the zirconium-water reaction. An animation model built by SNAP was also shown in this study.
Abstract: The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.
Abstract: Germanium Telluride based quaternary thin film switching devices with composition Ge15In5Te56Ag24, have been deposited in sandwich geometry on glass substrate with aluminum as top and bottom electrodes. The bulk glassy form of the said composition is prepared by melt quenching technique. In this technique, appropriate quantity of elements with high purity are taken in a quartz ampoule and sealed under a vacuum of 10-5 mbar. Then, it is allowed to rotate in a horizontal rotary furnace for 36 hours to ensure homogeneity of the melt. After that, the ampoule is quenched into a mixture of ice - water and NaOH to get the bulk ingot of the sample. The sample is then coated on a glass substrate using flash evaporation technique at a vacuum level of 10-6 mbar. The XRD report reveals the amorphous nature of the thin film sample and Energy - Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms that the film retains the same chemical composition as that of the base sample. Electrical switching behavior of the device is studied with the help of Keithley (2410c) source-measure unit interfaced with Lab VIEW 7 (National Instruments). Switching studies, mainly SET (changing the state of the material from amorphous to crystalline) operation is conducted on the thin film form of the sample. This device is found to manifest memory switching as the device remains 'ON' even after the removal of the electric field. Also it is found that amorphous Ge15In5Te56Ag24 thin film unveils clean memory type of electrical switching behavior which can be justified by the absence of fluctuation in the I-V characteristics. The I-V characteristic also reveals that the switching is faster in this sample as no data points could be seen in the negative resistance region during the transition to on state and this leads to the conclusion of fast phase change during SET process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies are performed on the chosen sample to study the structural changes at the time of switching. SEM studies on the switched Ge15In5Te56Ag24 sample has shown some morphological changes at the place of switching wherein it can be explained that a conducting crystalline channel is formed in the device when the device switches from high resistance to low resistance state. From these studies it can be concluded that the material may find its application in fast switching Non-Volatile Phase Change Memory (PCM) Devices.
Abstract: A novel sensing system has been designed for
naphthalene detection based on the quenched fluorescence signal of
CdS quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the system reduced
significantly after adding CdS quantum dots to the water pollution
model because of the fluorescent static quenching f mechanism.
Herein, we have demonstrated the facile methodology can offer a
convenient and low analysis cost with the recovery rate as
97.43%-103.2%, which has potential application prospect.
Abstract: Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different
content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching
method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear)
measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at
ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature,
softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a
function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic
moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio
have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content.
Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression)
model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain
more information about the structure of these glasses. The study
indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of
SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging
and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).
Abstract: In this current contribution, authors are dedicated to
investigate influence of the crystal lamellae orientation on
electromechanical behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Poly
(vinylidene fluoride –trifluoroethylene -chlorotrifluoroethylene)
(P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)) films by control of polymer microstructure,
aiming to picture the full map of structure-property relationship. In
order to define their crystal orientation films, terpolymer films were
fabricated by solution-casting, stretching and hot-pressing process.
Differential scanning calorimetry, impedance analyzer, and tensile
strength techniques were employed to characterize crystallographic
parameters, dielectric permittivity, and elastic Young’s modulus
respectively. In addition, large electrical induced out-of-plane
electrostrictive strain was obtained by cantilever beam mode.
Consequently, as-casted pristine films exhibited surprisingly high
electrostrictive strain 0.1774% due to considerably small value of
elastic Young’s modulus although relatively low dielectric
permittivity. Such reasons contributed to large mechanical elastic
energy density. Instead, due to 2 folds increase of elastic Young’s
modulus and less than 50% augmentation of dielectric constant, fullycrystallized
film showed weak electrostrictive behavior and
mechanical energy density as well. And subjected to mechanical
stretching process, Film C exhibited stronger dielectric constant and
out-performed electrostrictive strain over Film B because edge-on
crystal lamellae orientation induced by uniaxially mechanical stretch.
Hot-press films were compared in term of cooling rate. Rather large
electrostrictive strain of 0.2788% for hot-pressed Film D in
quenching process was observed although its dielectric permittivity
equivalent to that of pristine as-casted Film A, showing highest
mechanical elastic energy density value of 359.5 J/m3. In hot-press
cooling process, dielectric permittivity of Film E saw values at 48.8
concomitant with ca.100% increase of Young’s modulus. Films with
intermediate mechanical energy density were obtained.
Abstract: Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron
Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to
identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the
oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise
gas-phase reactions of 1--MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine
tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron (III) nitrate
nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR
fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by gfactors
of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger
maintained at 77 K after accumulation over a multitude of
experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe (IV) paramagnetic
intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on
nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe (IV) --- O2•- were detected
from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.
Abstract: In this study, the experiments were carried out to
determine the best coolant for the quenching process among waterbased
silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%).
A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments.
When the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it
was suddenly immersed into the nanofluids. All experiments were
carried out at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure.
After the experiments, the cooling curves were obtained by using the
temperature-time data of the specimen. The experimental results
showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on
the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the
performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the
quenching among other nanoparticles.
Abstract: The changes of the optical and structural properties of
Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were
studied. Six glass samples, with different composition [(TeO2)0.7
(B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were
irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore
the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure,
while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes
in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma
irradiation causes profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by
FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding.
Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased
from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The
value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure
to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen
(NBO) and the increase of defect in the glass. In conclusion, the glass
with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give smallest Eg and show less
changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation which indicate that
this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other
Abstract: Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different
materials. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and
constituents when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Principal
effects due to elevated temperatures are loss in compressive strength,
loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete. The
experimental results of normal concrete and high strength concrete
subjected elevated temperatures at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C
and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching on
different grade of concrete are reported in this paper.
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the
effect of aging parameters (time and temperature) on the mechanical
properties of Be-and/or Zr- treated Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys. Ultimate
tensile strength, 0.5% offset yield strength and % elongation
measurements were carried out on specimens prepared from cast and
heat treated 7075 alloys containing Be and/or Zr. Different aging
treatment were carried out for the as solution treated (SHT)
specimens (after quenching in warm water). The specimens were
aged at different conditions; Natural and artificial aging was carried
out at room temperature, 120C, 150C, 180C and 220C for different
periods of time. Duplex aging was performed for SHT conditions
(pre-aged at different time and temperature followed by high
temperature aging). Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and %
elongation data results as a function of different aging parameters are
analysed. A statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach using
fractional factorial design is applied to acquire an understanding of
the effects of these variables and their interactions on the mechanical
properties of Be- and/or Zr- treated 7075 alloys. Mathematical
models are developed to relate the alloy mechanical properties with
the different aging parameters.
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the
effect of pre-aging and aging parameters (time and temperature) on
the mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys. Ultimate
tensile strength, 0.5% offset yield strength and % elongation
measurements were carried out on specimens prepared from cast and
heat treated 7075 alloys. Aging treatments were carried out for the as
solution treated (SHT) specimens (after quenching in warm water).
The specimens were aged at different conditions; Natural aging was
carried out at room temperature for different periods of time. Double
aging was performed for SHT conditions (pre-aged at different time
and temperature followed by high temperature aging). Ultimate
tensile strength, yield strength and % elongation as a function of
different pre-aging and aging parameters are analyzed to acquire an
understanding of the effects of these variables and their interactions
on the mechanical properties of Be-treated 7075 alloys.
Abstract: Water spray cooling is a technique typically used in
heat treatment and other metallurgical processes where controlled
temperature regimes are required. Water spray cooling is used in
static (without movement) or dynamic (with movement of the steel
plate) regimes. The static regime is notable for the fixed position of
the hot steel plate and fixed spray nozzle. This regime is typical for
quenching systems focused on heat treatment of the steel plate. The
second application of spray cooling is the dynamic regime. The
dynamic regime is notable for its static section cooling system and
moving steel plate. This regime is used in rolling and finishing mills.
The fixed position of cooling sections with nozzles and the
movement of the steel plate produce nonhomogeneous water
distribution on the steel plate. The length of cooling sections and
placement of water nozzles in combination with the nonhomogeneity
of water distribution lead to discontinued or interrupted cooling
conditions. The impact of static and dynamic regimes on cooling
intensity and the heat transfer coefficient during the cooling process
of steel plates is an important issue.
Heat treatment of steel is accompanied by oxide scale growth. The
oxide scale layers can significantly modify the cooling properties and
intensity during the cooling. The combination of static and dynamic
(section) regimes with the variable thickness of the oxide scale layer
on the steel surface impact the final cooling intensity. The study of
the influence of the oxide scale layers with different cooling regimes
was carried out using experimental measurements and numerical
analysis. The experimental measurements compared both types of
cooling regimes and the cooling of scale-free surfaces and oxidized
surfaces. A numerical analysis was prepared to simulate the cooling
process with different conditions of the section and samples with
different oxide scale layers.
Abstract: Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic
agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]-
Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by
analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR)
techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted
octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1
and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2
and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1
(2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible
absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of
interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern-
Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 ×
106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove
binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective
cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1.Their interaction with
DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.
Abstract: SiC reinforced Aluminum samples were produced by stir casting of liquid AA1200 aluminum alloy at 600-650ºC casting temperature. 83µm SiC particles were rinsed in 10g/l, 20g/l and 30g/l molar concentration of Sncl2 through cleaning times of 0, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Some cast samples were tested for mechanical properties and some were subjected to heat treatment before testing. The SnCl2 rinsed SiC reinforced aluminum exhibited higher yield strength, hardness, stiffness and elongation which increases with cleaning concentration and time up to 120 minutes, compared to composite with untreated SiC. However, the impact energy resistance decreases with cleaning concentration and time. The improved properties were attributed to good wettability and mechanical adhesion at the fiber-matrix interface. Quenching and annealing the composite samples further improve the tensile/yield strengths, elongation, stiffness, hardness similar to those of the as-cast samples.
Abstract: Spheroidization heat treatment was conducted on the SK85 high carbon steel sheets with various initial microstructures obtained after cold rolling by various reduction ratios at a couple of annealing temperatures. On the high carbon steel sheet with fine pearlite microstructure, obtained by soaking at 800oC for 2hr in a box furnace and then annealing at 570oC for 5min in a salt bath furnace followed by water quenching, cold rolling was conducted by reduction ratios of 20, 30, and 40%. Heat treatment for spheroidization was carried out at 600 and 720oC for the various time intervals from 0.1 to 32 hrs. Area fraction of spheroidized cementite was measured with an image analyzer as a function of cold reduction ratios and duration times. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature on the spheoidized high carbon steel.
Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 oC temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5- 4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000 -24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.