Abstract: The strength, hardness, and toughness (ductility) are in strong conflict for the metallic materials. The only possibility how to make their simultaneous improvement is to provide the microstructural refinement, by cold deformation, and subsequent recrystallization. However, application of this kind of treatment is impossible for high-carbon high-alloyed ledeburitic tool steels. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated over the last few years that sub-zero treatment induces some microstructural changes in these materials, which might favourably influence their complex of mechanical properties. Commercially available PM ledeburitic steel Vanadis 6 has been used for the current investigations. The paper demonstrates that sub-zero treatment induces clear refinement of the martensite, reduces the amount of retained austenite, enhances the population density of fine carbides, and makes alterations in microstructural development that take place during tempering. As a consequence, the steel manifests improved wear resistance at higher toughness and fracture toughness. Based on the obtained results, the key question “can the wear performance be improved by sub-zero treatment simultaneously with toughness” can be answered by “definitely yes”.
Abstract: Dual-phase high carbon steels (DHCS) are commonly known for their improved strength, hardness, and abrasive resistance properties due to co-presence of retained austenite and martensite at the same time. Retained austenite is a meta-stable phase at room temperature, and stability of this phase governs the response of DHCS at different conditions. This research paper studies the effect of RA stability on corrosion behaviour of high carbon steels after they have been immersed into 1.0 M NaCl solution for various times. For this purpose, two different steels with different RA stabilities have been investigated. The surface morphology of the samples before and after corrosion attack was observed by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), along with the weight loss and Vickers hardness analysis. Microstructural investigations proved the preferential attack to retained austenite phase during corrosion. Hence, increase in the stability of retained austenite in dual-phase steels led to decreasing the weight loss rate.
Abstract: Thermo-mechanical processing with various processing parameters was applied to 0.2%C-0.6%Mn-2S%i-0.8%Cr low alloyed high strength steel. The aim of the processing was to achieve the microstructures typical for transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. Thermo-mechanical processing used in this work incorporated two or three deformation steps. The deformations were in all the cases carried out during the cooling from soaking temperatures to various bainite hold temperatures. In this way, 4-10% of retained austenite were retained in the final microstructures, consisting further of ferrite, bainite, martensite and pearlite. The complex character of TRIP steel microstructure is responsible for its good strength and ductility. The strengths achieved in this work were in the range of 740 MPa – 836 MPa with ductility A5mm of 31-41%.
Abstract: The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.
Abstract: The strain intensity and redundant strains, dependent
in multistage TRIP wire drawing processes from values used single
partial reductions, should influence on the intensity of transformation
the retained austenite into martensite and thereby on mechanical
properties of drawn wires. The numerical analysis of drawing
processes with use of Drawing 2D programme, for steel wires made
from TRIP steel with 0,29% has been shown in the work. The change
of strain intensity εc and the values of redundant strain εxy, has been
determined for particular draws in dependence of used single partial
Abstract: The dissimilar joint between aluminum/titanium
alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) were successfully achieved by CO2 laser
welding with a single pass and without filler material using the
overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations
were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the
objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile
and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of
dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was resulted in three distinct regions
fusion area in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its
microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly
affecting the welding quality.
The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime.
In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain
growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also
has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals
and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.
Abstract: Cryogenic treatment is the process of cooling a material to extremely low temperatures to generate enhanced mechanical and physical properties. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment on the impact behavior of En 52 and 21-4N valve steels. The valve steels are subjected to shallow (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (85 K), and the impact behavior is compared with the valve steel materials subjected to conventional heat treatment. The impact test is carried out in accordance with the ASTM E 23-02a standard. The results show an improvement of 23 % in the impact energy for the En 52 deep cryo-treated samples when compared to that of the conventionally heat treated samples. It is revealed that during cryogenic treatment fine platelets of martensite are formed from the retained austenite, and these platelets promote the precipitation of fine carbides by a diffusion mechanism during tempering.
Abstract: This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers microhardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures thereby improving the integrity of the material.
Abstract: In the present study, two TRIP-assisted steels were designated as A (having no Cr and Cu content) and B (having higher Ni, Cr and Cu content) heat treated under different conditions, and the correlation between its heat treatment, microstructure and properties were investigated. Micro structural examination was carried out by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope after electrolytic etching. Non-destructive electrochemical and ultrasonic testing on two TRIP-assisted steels was used to find out corrosion and mechanical properties of different alter microstructure phase’s steels. Furthermore, micro structural studies accompanied by the evaluation of mechanical properties revealed that steels having martensite phases with higher corrosive and hardness value were less sound velocity and also steel’s microstructure having finer grains that was more grain boundary was less corrosion resistance. Steel containing more Cu, Ni and Cr was less corrosive compared to other steels having same processing or microstructure.
Abstract: The objective of this project is to study the corrosion
behaviour and hardness based on the presence of martensite in dual
phase steel. This study was conducted on six samples of dual phase
steel which have different percentage of martensite. A total of 9
specimens were prepared by intercritical annealing process to study
the effect of temperature to the formation of martensite. The low
carbon steels specimens were heated for 25 minutes in a specified
temperature ranging from 7250C to 8250C followed by rapid cooling
in water. The measurement of corrosion rate was done by using
extrapolation tafel method, while potentiostat was used to control and
measured the current produced. This measurement is performed
through a system named CMS105. The result shows that a specimen
with higher percentage of martensite is likely to corrode faster.
Hardness test for each specimen was conducted to compare its
hardness with low carbon steel. The results obtained indicate that the
specimen hardness is proportional to the amount of martensite in dual
Abstract: Phase transformation temperature is one of the most important parameters for the shape memory alloys (SMAs). The most popular method to determine these phase transformation temperatures is the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), but due to the limitation of the DSC testing itself, it made it difficult for the finished product which is not in the powder form. A novel method which uses the Universal Testing Machine has been conducted to determine the phase transformation temperatures. The Flexinol wire was applied with force and maintained throughout the experiment and at the same time it was heated up slowly until a temperature of approximately 1000C with direct current. The direct current was then slowly decreased to cool down the temperature of the Flexinol wire. All the phase transformation temperatures for Flexinol wire were obtained. The austenite start at 52.540C and austenite finish at 60.900C, while martensite start at 44.780C and martensite finish at 32.840C.
Abstract: A study of the H-beam's nanosize structure phase
states after thermomechanical strengthening was carried out by TEM.
The following processes were analyzed. 1. The dispersing of the
cementite plates by cutting them by moving dislocations. 2. The
dissolution of cementite plates and repeated precipitation of the
cementite particles on the dislocations, the boundaries, subgrains and
grains. 3. The decay of solid solution of carbon in the α-iron after
"self-tempering" of martensite. 4. The final transformation of the
retained austenite in beinite with α-iron particles and cementite
formation. 5. The implementation of the diffusion mechanism of γ ⇒
Abstract: In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).
Abstract: The paper presents the results of microhardness and
microstructure of low carbon steel surface melted using carbon
dioxide laser with a wavelength of 10.6μm and a maximum output
power of 2000W. The processing parameters such as the laser power,
and the scanning rate were investigated in this study. After surface
melting two distinct regions formed corresponding to the melted zone
MZ, and the heat affected zone HAZ. The laser melted region
displayed a cellular fine structures while the HAZ displayed
martensite or bainite structure. At different processing parameters,
the original microstructure of this steel (Ferrite+Pearlite) has been
transformed to new phases of martensitic and bainitic structures. The
fine structure and the high microhardness are evidence of the high
cooling rates which follow the laser melting. The melting pool and
the transformed microstructure in the laser surface melted region of
carbon steel showed clear dependence on laser power and scanning
Abstract: Dual phase steels (DPS)s have a microstructure
consisting of a hard second phase called Martensite in the soft Ferrite
matrix. In recent years, there has been interest in dual-phase steels,
because the application of these materials has made significant usage;
particularly in the automotive sector Composite microstructure of
(DPS)s exhibit interesting characteristic mechanical properties such
as continuous yielding, low yield stress to tensile strength
ratios(YS/UTS), and relatively high formability; which offer
advantages compared with conventional high strength low alloy
steels(HSLAS). The research dealt with the characterization of
damage in (DPS)s. In this study by review the mechanisms of failure
due to volume fraction of martensite second phase; a new method is
introduced to identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various
phases of these types of steels. In this method the acoustic emission
(AE) technique was used to detect damage progression. These failure
mechanisms consist of Ferrite-Martensite interface decohesion and/or
martensite phase fracture. For this aim, dual phase steels with
different volume fraction of martensite second phase has provided by
various heat treatment methods on a low carbon steel (0.1% C), and
then AE monitoring is used during tensile test of these DPSs. From
AE measurements and an energy ratio curve elaborated from the
value of AE energy (it was obtained as the ratio between the strain
energy to the acoustic energy), that allows detecting important
events, corresponding to the sudden drops. These AE signals events
associated with various failure mechanisms are classified for ferrite
and (DPS)s with various amount of Vm and different martensite
morphology. It is found that AE energy increase with increasing Vm.
This increasing of AE energy is because of more contribution of
martensite fracture in the failure of samples with higher Vm. Final
results show a good relationship between the AE signals and the
mechanisms of failure.
Abstract: Austenite and Martensite indicate the phases of solids undergoing phase transformation which we usually associate with materials and not with living organisms. This article provides an overview of bacterial proteins and structures that are undergoing phase transformation and suggests its probable effect on mechanical behavior. The context is mainly within the role of phase transformations occurring in the flagellum of bacteria. The current knowledge of molecular mechanism leading to phase variation in living organisms is reviewed. Since in bacteria, each flagellum is driven by a separate motor, similarity to a Differential drive in case of four-wheeled vehicles is suggested. It also suggests the application of the mechanism in which bacteria changes its direction of movement to facilitate single point turning of a multi-wheeled vehicle. Finally, examples are presented to illustrate that the motion due to phase transformation of flagella in bacteria can start a whole new research on motion mechanisms.