Abstract: This paper studies a case where the targeted surface roughness of fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process is improved. The process is designing to reduce or eliminate the defects and improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an FDM additive manufacturing process. The baseline Cp is 0.274 and Cpk is 0.654. This research utilizes the Taguchi methodology, to eliminate defects and improve the process. The Taguchi method is used to optimize the additive manufacturing process and printing parameters that affect the targeted surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to organize the parameters' (four controllable parameters and one non-controllable parameter) effectiveness on the FDM additive manufacturing process. The four controllable parameters are nozzle temperature [°C], layer thickness [mm], nozzle speed [mm/s], and extruder speed [%]. The non-controllable parameter is the environmental temperature [°C]. After the optimization of the parameters, a confirmation print was printed to prove that the results can reduce the amount of defects and improve the process capability index Cp from 0.274 to 1.605 and the Cpk from 0.654 to 1.233 for the FDM additive manufacturing process. The final results confirmed that the Taguchi methodology is sufficient to improve the surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing process.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing gains the popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well functional as end use product directly from CAD data without any specific requirement of tooling. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the widely used additive manufacturing techniques that are used to create functional end use part of polymer that is comparable with the injection-molded parts. FDM printed part has an application in various fields such as automobile, aerospace, medical, electronic, etc. However, application of FDM part is greatly affected by poor mechanical properties. Proper selection of the process parameter could enhance the mechanical performance of the printed part. In the present study, experimental investigation has been carried out to study the behavior of the mechanical performance of the printed part with respect to process variables. Three process variables viz. raster angle, raster width and layer height have been varied to understand its effect on tensile strength. Further, effect of process variables on fractured surface has been also investigated.
Abstract: Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.
Abstract: Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies enable physical
parts to be produced from various materials without depending on the
conventional tooling. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of
the famous RP processes used at present. Tensile strength and
compressive strength resistance will be identified for different sample
structures and different layer orientations of ABS rapid prototype
solid models. The samples will be fabricated by a FDM rapid
prototyping machine in different layer orientations with variations in
internal geometrical structure. The 0° orientation where layers were
deposited along the length of the samples displayed superior strength
and impact resistance over all the other orientations. The anisotropic
properties were probably caused by weak interlayer bonding and
Abstract: When printing a plate (or dish) by an FDM 3D printer,
the process normally requires support material, which causes several
problems. This paper proposes a method for forming thin plates
without using wasteful support material. This method requires several
extraordinary parameter values when slicing plates. The experiments
show that the plates can, for the most part, be successfully formed
using a conventional slicer and a 3D printer; however, seams between
layers spoil them and the quality of printed objects strongly depends
on the slicer.
Abstract: Objects are usually horizontally sliced when printed by 3D printers. Therefore, if an object to be printed, such as a collection of fibers, originally has natural direction in shape, the printed direction contradicts with the natural direction. By using proper tools, such as field-oriented 3D paint software, field-oriented solid modelers, field-based tool-path generation software, and non-horizontal FDM 3D printers, the natural direction can be modeled and objects can be printed in a direction that is consistent with the natural direction. This consistence results in embodiment of momentum or force in expressions of the printed object. To achieve this goal, several design and manufacturing problems, but not all, have been solved. An application of this method is (Japanese) 3D calligraphy.
Abstract: This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid
fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling
system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20
pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold
using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding.
The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform
using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for
building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers
industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and
Abstract: Traditionally, wind tunnel models are made of metal
and are very expensive. In these years, everyone is looking for ways
to do more with less. Under the right test conditions, a rapid
prototype part could be tested in a wind tunnel. Using rapid prototype
manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly
reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This
study was done of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and their ability
to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost
effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel
model configuration constructed using FDM for transonic wind
tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid
prototyping model constructed of FDM Technologies using
polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Testing
covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.75 at an angle-ofattack
range of - 2° to +12°. Results from this study show relatively
good agreement between the two models and rapid prototyping
Method reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models.
It can be concluded from this study that wind tunnel models
constructed using rapid prototyping method and materials can be
used in wind tunnel testing for initial baseline aerodynamic database
Abstract: Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area
of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping
technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for
production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state
as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used
various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range
materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping technology are
mainly used as basic materials ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene
Styrene), polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene.
For advanced FDM applications are used special materials as silicon
nitrate, PZT (Piezoceramic Material - Lead Zirconate Titanate),
aluminium oxide, hydroxypatite and stainless steel.
Abstract: Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyze the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.