Abstract: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) are widely
used for advanced applications, in particular in aerospace, automotive
and wind energy industries. Once cured to near net shape, CFRP
parts need several finishing operations such as trimming, milling or
drilling in order to accommodate fastening hardware and meeting the
final dimensions. The present research aims to study the effect of the
cutting temperature in trimming on the mechanical strength of high
performance CFRP laminates used for aeronautics applications. The
cutting temperature is of great importance when dealing with
trimming of CFRP. Temperatures higher than the glass-transition
temperature (Tg) of the resin matrix are highly undesirable: they
cause degradation of the matrix in the trimmed edges area, which can
severely affect the mechanical performance of the entire component.
In this study, a 9.50mm diameter CVD diamond coated carbide tool
with six flutes was used to trim 24-plies CFRP laminates. A
300m/min cutting speed and 1140mm/min feed rate were used in the
experiments. The tool was heated prior to trimming using a
blowtorch, for temperatures ranging from 20°C to 300°C. The
temperature at the cutting edge was measured using embedded KType
thermocouples. Samples trimmed for different cutting
temperatures, below and above Tg, were mechanically tested using
three-points bending short-beam loading configurations. New cutting
tools as well as worn cutting tools were utilized for the experiments.
The experiments with the new tools could not prove any correlation
between the length of cut, the cutting temperature and the mechanical
performance. Thus mechanical strength was constant, regardless of
the cutting temperature. However, for worn tools, producing a cutting
temperature rising up to 450°C, thermal damage of the resin was
observed. The mechanical tests showed a reduced mean resistance in
short beam configuration, while the resistance in three point bending
decreases with increase of the cutting temperature.
Abstract: Grinding requires high specific energy and the consequent development of high temperature at tool-workpiece contact zone impairs workpiece quality by inducing thermal damage to the surface. Finishing grinding process requires component to be cut more than one pass. This paper deals with an investigation on the effect of multipass cutting on grinding performance in term of surface roughness and surface defect. An experimental set-up has been developed for this and a detailed comparison has been done with a single pass and various numbers of cutting pass. Results showed that surface roughness increase with the increase in a number of cutting pass. Good surface finish of 0.26μm was obtained for single pass cutting and 0.73μm for twenty pass cutting. It was also observed that the thickness of the white layer increased with the increased in a number of cutting pass.
Abstract: In medical therapy, laser has been widely used to conduct cosmetic, tumor and other treatments. During the process of laser irradiation, there may be thermal damage caused by excessive laser exposure. Thus, the establishment of a complete thermal analysis model is clinically helpful to physicians in reference data. In this study, porcine liver in place of tissue was subjected to laser irradiation to set up the experimental data considering the explored impact on surface thermal field and thermal damage region under different conditions of power, laser irradiation time, and distance between laser and porcine liver. In the experimental process, the surface temperature distribution of the porcine lever was measured by the infrared thermal imager. In the part of simulation, the bio heat transfer Pennes-s equation was solved by software SYSWELD applying in welding process. The double ellipsoid function as a laser source term is firstly considered in the prediction for surface thermal field and internal tissue damage. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data to validate the mathematical model established here in.