Abstract: Laminar natural convection in a cylindrical annular cavity filled with air and provided with two fins is studied numerically using the discretization of the governing equations with the Centered Finite Difference method based on the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The fins are attached to the inner cylinder of radius ri (hot wall of temperature Ti). The outer cylinder of radius ro is maintained at a temperature To (To < Ti). Two values of the dimensionless thickness of the fins are considered: 0.015 and 0.203. We consider a low fin height equal to 0.078 and medium fin heights equal to 0.093 and 0.203. The position of the fin is 0.82π and the radius ratio is equal to 2. The effect of Rayleigh number, Ra, on the flow structure and heat transfer is analyzed for a range of Ra from 103 to 104. The results for established flow structures and heat transfer at low height indicate that the flow regime that occurs is unicellular for all Ra and fin thickness; in addition, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number and is the same for both thicknesses. At median fin heights 0.093 and 0.203, the increase of Rayleigh number leads to transitions of flow structure which correspond to significant variations of the heat transfer. The critical Rayleigh numbers, Rac.app and Rac.disp corresponding to the appearance of the bicellular flow regime and its disappearance, are determined and their influence on the change of heat transfer rate is analyzed.
Abstract: In this numerical study, natural convection of Cu–water nanofluid in a cavity submitted to different heating modes on its vertical walls is analyzed. Maxwell-Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models have been utilized for calculating the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluid, respectively. Influences of Rayleigh number (Ra = 103−106), nanoparticle volume concentration (f = 0-0.04) and Hartmann number (Ha = 0-90) on the flow and heat transfer characteristics have been examined. The results indicate that the Hartmann number influences the heat transfer at Ra = 106 more than other Raleigh numbers, as the least effect is observed at Ra = 103. Moreover, the results show that the solid volume fraction has a significant influence on heat transfer, depending on the value of Hartmann, heat generation or absorption coefficient and Rayleigh numbers.
Abstract: In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.
Abstract: In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.
Abstract: The effect of linear stability analysis of triple diffusive convection in a vertically oscillating viscoelastic liquid of Oldroyd-B type is studied. The correction Rayleigh number is obtained by using perturbation method which gives prospect to control the convection. The eigenvalue is obtained by using perturbation method by adopting Venezian approach. From the study, it is observed that gravity modulation advances the onset of triple diffusive convection.
Abstract: Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.
Abstract: A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.
Abstract: In this numerical work, natural convection and entropy generation of Al2O3–water nanofluid in square cavity have been studied. A two-dimensional steady laminar natural convection in a differentially heated square cavity of length L, filled with a nanofluid is investigated numerically. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. Vertical walls corresponding to x=0 and x=L are respectively maintained at hot temperature, Th and cold temperature, Tc. The resolution is performed by the CFD code "FLUENT" in combination with GAMBIT as mesh generator. These simulations are performed by maintaining the Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, while the solid volume fraction varied from 1% to 5%, the particle size is fixed at dp=33 nm and a range of the temperature from 20 to 70 °C. We used models of thermophysical nanofluids properties based on experimental measurements for studying the effect of adding solid particle into water in natural convection heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid. Such as models of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity which are dependent on solid volume fraction, particle size and temperature. The average Nusselt number is calculated at the hot wall of the cavity in a different solid volume fraction. The most important results is that at low temperatures (less than 40 °C), the addition of nanosolids Al2O3 into water leads to a decrease in heat transfer and entropy generation instead of the expected increase, whereas at high temperature, heat transfer and entropy generation increase with the addition of nanosolids. This behavior is due to the contradictory effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. These effects are discussed in this work.
Abstract: In this study, we investigated numerically heat
transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity;
the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to
see the influence of the emissivity ε and the varying of the
Richardson number Ri on the variation of average Nusselt number
Nu. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left
wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right
wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume
method is used for solving the dimensionless Governing Equations.
Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the
Richardson number in the range 0.1 to 10. The Rayleigh number is
fixed to Ra=104 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant
Pr=0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt
number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results
of this study show that the Richardson number Ri and emissivity ε
affect the average Nusselt number.
Abstract: The present study focused on the investigation of the
effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural
convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique.
Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a
normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice
Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a
laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106
for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of
Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness
elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat
transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure.
The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms
Abstract: In this numerical work, mixed convection and entropy
generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a lid-driven square cavity have
been investigated numerically using the Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Horizontal walls of the cavity are adiabatic and vertical walls have
constant temperature but different values. The top wall has been
considered as moving from left to right at a constant speed, U0. The
effects of different parameters such as nanoparticle volume
concentration (0–0.05), Rayleigh number (104–106) and Reynolds
numbers (1, 10 and 100) on the entropy generation, flow and
temperature fields are studied. The results have shown that addition
of nanoparticles to the base fluid affects the entropy generation, flow
pattern and thermal behavior especially at higher Rayleigh and low
Reynolds numbers. For pure fluid as well as nanofluid, the increase
of Reynolds number increases the average Nusselt number and the
total entropy generation, linearly. The maximum entropy generation
occurs in nanofluid at low Rayleigh number and at high Reynolds
number. The minimum entropy generation occurs in pure fluid at low
Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Also at higher Reynolds number,
the effect of Cu nanoparticles on enhancement of heat transfer was
decreased because the effect of lid-driven cavity was increased. The
present results are validated by favorable comparisons with
previously published results. The results of the problem are presented
in graphical and tabular forms and discussed.
Abstract: Linear stability analysis of double diffusive convection
in a horizontal porous layer saturated with fluid is examined by
considering the effects of viscous dissipation, concentration based
internal heat source and vertical throughflow. The basic steady
state solution for Governing equations is derived. Linear stability
analysis has been implemented numerically by using shooting
and Runge-kutta methods. Critical thermal Rayleigh number Rac
is obtained for various values of solutal Rayleigh number Sa,
vertical Peclet number Pe, Gebhart number Ge, Lewis number
Le and measure of concentration based internal heat source
γ. It is observed that Ge has destabilizing effect for upward
throughflow and stabilizing effect for downward throughflow. And
γ has considerable destabilizing effect for upward throughflow and
insignificant destabilizing effect for downward throughflow.
Abstract: An investigation has been presented to analyze the
effect of internal heat source on the onset of Hadley-Prats flow in
a horizontal fluid saturated porous medium. We examine a better
understanding of the combined influence of the heat source and mass
flow effect by using linear stability analysis. The resultant eigenvalue
problem is solved by using shooting and Runga-Kutta methods for
evaluate critical thermal Rayleigh number with respect to various
flow governing parameters. It is identified that the flow is switch from
stabilizing to destabilizing as the horizontal thermal Rayleigh number
is enhanced. The heat source and mass flow increases resulting a
stronger destabilizing effect.
Abstract: This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and
fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The
energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically
using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction
concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied
icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal
conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of
volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different
Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were
Abstract: This paper reports the numerical simulation of doublediffusive
natural convection flows within a horizontal annular filled
with a saturated porous medium. The analysis concerns the influence
of the different parameters governing the problem, namely, the
Rayleigh number Ra, the Lewis number Le and the buoyancy ratio N,
on the heat and mass transfer and on the flow structure, in the case of
a fixed radius ratio R = 2. The numerical model used for the
discretization of the dimensionless equations governing the problem
is based on the finite difference method, using the ADI scheme. The
study is focused on steady-state solutions in the cooperation situation.
Abstract: The thermal control in many systems is widely
accomplished applying mixed convection process due to its low cost,
reliability and easy maintenance. Typical applications include the
aircraft electronic equipment, rotating-disc heat exchangers, turbo
machinery, and nuclear reactors, etc. Natural convection in an inclined
square enclosure heated via wall heater has been studied numerically.
Finite volume method is used for solving momentum and energy
equations in the form of stream function–vorticity. The right and left
walls are kept at a constant temperature, while the other parts are
adiabatic. The range of the inclination angle covers a whole revolution.
The method is validated for a vertical cavity. A general power law
dependence of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh
number with the coefficient and exponent as functions of the
inclination angle is presented. For a fixed Rayleigh number, the
inclination angle increases or decreases is found.
Abstract: Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square
cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single
relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was
introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal
roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid
of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored
from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square
cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall.
Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls
with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the
same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational
algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies
performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement
was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in
the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.
Abstract: In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal
rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects
of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on
flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied in detail. This study
covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2 × 10^6 ≤ Ra ≤ 2 × 10^7 and
Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1100. Results reveal that
the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers
increase. It is also found that the dimensionless temperature
distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.
Abstract: This paper investigates the natural convection heat transfer performance in a complex-wavy-wall cavity filled with power-law fluid. In performing the simulations, the continuity, Cauchy momentum and energy equations are solved subject to the Boussinesq approximation using a finite volume method. The simulations focus specifically on the effects of the flow behavior index in the power-law model and the Rayleigh number on the flow streamlines, isothermal contours and mean Nusselt number within the cavity. The results show that pseudoplastic fluids have a better heat transfer performance than Newtonian or dilatant fluids. Moreover, it is shown that for Rayleigh numbers greater than Ra=103, the mean Nusselt number has a significantly increase as the flow behavior index is decreased.
Abstract: Laminar mixed Convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh Numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.