Abstract: The objective of this study was to improve our
understanding of vulnerability and environmental change; it's causes
basically show the intensity, its distribution and human-environment
effect on the ecosystem in the Apodi Valley Region, This paper is
identify, assess and classify vulnerability and environmental change
in the Apodi valley region using a combined approach of landscape
pattern and ecosystem sensitivity. Models were developed using the
following five thematic layers: Geology, geomorphology, soil,
vegetation and land use/cover, by means of a Geographical
Information Systems (GIS)-based on hydro-geophysical parameters.
In spite of the data problems and shortcomings, using ESRI-s ArcGIS
9.3 program, the vulnerability score, to classify, weight and combine
a number of 15 separate land cover classes to create a single indicator
provides a reliable measure of differences (6 classes) among regions
and communities that are exposed to similar ranges of hazards.
Indeed, the ongoing and active development of vulnerability
concepts and methods have already produced some tools to help
overcome common issues, such as acting in a context of high
uncertainties, taking into account the dynamics and spatial scale of
asocial-ecological system, or gathering viewpoints from different
sciences to combine human and impact-based approaches. Based on
this assessment, this paper proposes concrete perspectives and
possibilities to benefit from existing commonalities in the
construction and application of assessment tools.
Abstract: Cenozoic basalts found in Jiangsu province of eastern
China include tholeiites and alkali basalts. The present paper analyzed
the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic
basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions proposed by
Chen et al. (1990) in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of
these basalts and the geochemical characteristics of the source mantle.
Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model
established by Brooks and Nielsen (1982) we suggest that the
basaltic magma has experienced olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation
during its evolution. The chemical compositions of basaltic rocks from
Jiangsu province indicate that these basalts may belong to the same
magmatic system. Spidergrams reveal that Cenozoic basalts from
Jiangsu province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of
ocean island basalts(OIB). The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies
found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing
minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had
contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a
metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting.
Based on the Sr vs. Nd isotopic ratio plots, we suggest that Jiangsu
basalts may be derived from partial melting of mantle source which
may represent two-end members mixing of DMM and EM-I. Some
Jiangsu basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-I
heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle or asthenospheric
Abstract: In this paper, the effect of width and height of the
model on the earthquake response in the finite element method is
discussed. For this purpose an earth dam as a soil structure under
earthquake has been considered. Various dam-foundation models are
analyzed by Plaxis, a finite element package for solving geotechnical
problems. The results indicate considerable differences in the seismic
Abstract: We board the problem of creating a seismic alert
system, based upon artificial neural networks, trained by using the
well-known back-propagation and genetic algorithms, in order to emit
the alarm for the population located into a specific city, about an
eminent earthquake greater than 4.5 Richter degrees, and avoiding
disasters and human loses. In lieu of using the propagation wave, we
employed the magnitude of the earthquake, to establish a correlation
between the recorded magnitudes from a controlled area and the city,
where we want to emit the alarm. To measure the accuracy of the
posed method, we use a database provided by CIRES, which contains
the records of 2500 quakes incoming from the State of Guerrero
and Mexico City. Particularly, we performed the proposed method to
generate an issue warning in Mexico City, employing the magnitudes
recorded in the State of Guerrero.
Abstract: In order to develop forest management strategies in
tropical forest in Malaysia, surveying the forest resources and
monitoring the forest area affected by logging activities is essential.
There are tremendous effort has been done in classification of land
cover related to forest resource management in this country as it is a
priority in all aspects of forest mapping using remote sensing and
related technology such as GIS. In fact classification process is a
compulsory step in any remote sensing research. Therefore, the main
objective of this paper is to assess classification accuracy of
classified forest map on Landsat TM data from difference number of
reference data (200 and 388 reference data). This comparison was
made through observation (200 reference data), and interpretation
and observation approaches (388 reference data). Five land cover
classes namely primary forest, logged over forest, water bodies, bare
land and agricultural crop/mixed horticultural can be identified by
the differences in spectral wavelength. Result showed that an overall
accuracy from 200 reference data was 83.5 % (kappa value
0.7502459; kappa variance 0.002871), which was considered
acceptable or good for optical data. However, when 200 reference
data was increased to 388 in the confusion matrix, the accuracy
slightly improved from 83.5% to 89.17%, with Kappa statistic
increased from 0.7502459 to 0.8026135, respectively. The accuracy
in this classification suggested that this strategy for the selection of
training area, interpretation approaches and number of reference data
used were importance to perform better classification result.
Abstract: Groundwater is one of the most important water
resources in Fars province. Based on this study, 95 percent of the
total annual water consumption in Fars is used for agriculture,
whereas the percentages for domestic and industrial uses are 4 and 1
percent, respectively. Population growth, urban and industrial
growth, and agricultural development in Fars have created a
condition of water stress. In this province, farmers and other users are
pumping groundwater faster than its natural replenishment rate,
causing a continuous drop in groundwater tables and depletion of this
resource. In this research variation of groundwater level, their effects
and ways to help control groundwater levels in aquifer of the Kavar-
Maharloo plains in Fars plain were evaluated .Excessive
exploitation of groundwater in this aquifer caused the groundwater
levels fall too fast or to unacceptable levels. The average drawdown
of the groundwater level in this plain were 17 meters during
1995 to 2006. The purpose of this study is to evaluate water level
changes in the Kavar-Maharloo Aquifer in the Fars province in order
to determine the areas of greatest depletion, the cause of depletion,
and predict the remaining life of the aquifer.
Abstract: This research was conducted in the Pua Watershed whereas located in the Upper Nan River Basin in Nan province, Thailand. Nan River basin originated in Nan province that comprises of many tributary streams to produce as inflow to the Sirikit dam provided huge reservoir with the storage capacity of 9510 million cubic meters. The common problems of most watersheds were found i.e. shortage water supply for consumption and agriculture utilizations, deteriorate of water quality, flood and landslide including debris flow, and unstable of riverbank. The Pua Watershed is one of several small river basins that flow through the Nan River Basin. The watershed includes 404 km2 representing the Pua District, the Upper Nan Basin, or the whole Nan River Basin, of 61.5%, 18.2% or 1.2% respectively. The Pua River is a main stream producing all year streamflow supplying the Pua District and an inflow to the Upper Nan Basin. Its length approximately 56.3 kilometers with an average slope of the channel by 1.9% measured. A diversion weir namely Pua weir bound the plain and mountainous areas with a very steep slope of the riverbed to 2.9% and drainage area of 149 km2 as upstream watershed while a mild slope of the riverbed to 0.2% found in a river reach of 20.3 km downstream of this weir, which considered as a gauged basin. However, the major branch streams of the Pua River are ungauged catchments namely: Nam Kwang and Nam Koon with the drainage area of 86 and 35 km2 respectively. These upstream watersheds produce runoff through the 3-streams downstream of Pua weir, Jao weir, and Kang weir, with an averaged annual runoff of 578 million cubic meters. They were analyzed using both statistical data at Pua weir and simulated data resulted from the hydrologic modeling system (HEC–HMS) which applied for the remaining ungauged basins. Since the Kwang and Koon catchments were limited with lack of hydrological data included streamflow and rainfall. Therefore, the mathematical modeling: HEC-HMS with the Snyder-s hydrograph synthesized and transposed methods were applied for those areas using calibrated hydrological parameters from the upstream of Pua weir with continuously daily recorded of streamflow and rainfall data during 2008-2011. The results showed that the simulated daily streamflow and sum up as annual runoff in 2008, 2010, and 2011 were fitted with observed annual runoff at Pua weir using the simple linear regression with the satisfied correlation R2 of 0.64, 062, and 0.59, respectively. The sensitivity of simulation results were come from difficulty using calibrated parameters i.e. lag-time, coefficient of peak flow, initial losses, uniform loss rates, and missing some daily observed data. These calibrated parameters were used to apply for the other 2-ungauged catchments and downstream catchments simulated.
Abstract: The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)
and normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) derived from the
moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been
widely used to identify spatial information of drought condition. The
relationship between NDVI and NDMI has been analyzed using
Pearson correlation analysis and showed strong positive relationship.
The drought indices have detected drought conditions and identified
spatial extents of drought. A comparison between normal year and
drought year demonstrates that the amplitude analysis considered both
vegetation and moisture condition is an effective method to identify
drought condition. We proposed the amplitude analysis is useful for
quick spatial assessment of drought information at a regional scale.
Abstract: Social resilience has role to govern the local community and coastal fisheries resources toward sustainable fisheries development in tsunami affected area. This paper asses, explore and investigates of indigenous institutions, external and internal facilitators toward strengthening social resilience. Identification of the genuine organizations role had been conducted twice by using Rapid Assessment Appraisal, Focus Group Discussion, and in-depth interview for collecting primary and secondary data. Local wisdom had a contribution and adaptable to rebound social resilience. The Panglima Laot Lhok (sea commander) had determined and adapted role on recovery of the fishing community, particularly facilitated aid delivery to fishermen, as shown in anchovy fisheries relief case in Krueng Raya Bay. Toke Bangku (financial trader) had stimulated for reinforcement of advance payment and market channel. The other institutions supported upon linking and bridging connectivity among stakeholders. Collaborative governance can avoid conflict, reduce donor dependency and strengthen social resilience within fishing community.
Abstract: Quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from
atmospheric model as input to hydrological model in an integrated
hydro-meteorological flood forecasting system has been operational
in many countries worldwide. High-resolution numerical weather
prediction (NWP) models with grid cell sizes between 2 and 14 km
have great potential in contributing towards reasonably accurate QPF.
In this study the potential of two NWP models to forecast
precipitation for a flood-prone area in a tropical region is examined.
The precipitation forecasts produced from the Fifth Generation Penn
State/NCAR Mesoscale (MM5) and Weather Research and
Forecasting (WRF) models are statistically verified with the observed
rain in Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia. The statistical verification
indicates that the models have performed quite satisfactorily for low
and moderate rainfall but not very satisfactory for heavy rainfall.
Abstract: Monitoring lightning electromagnetic pulses (sferics)
and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial transient radiation signals
is of considerable interest for practical and theoretical purposes
in astro- and geophysics as well as meteorology. Managing a continuous
flow of data, automisation of the detection and classification
process is important. Features based on a combination of wavelet and
statistical methods proved efficient for analysis and characterisation
of transients and as input into a radial basis function network that is
trained to discriminate transients from pulse like to wave like.
Abstract: The paper describes the carbonate microfacies identified in the Sinjar Formation (Late Paleocene–Early Eocene) cropping out in Qara Dagh Mountain, near Sulekan Village approximately 20km south–west of Sulaimani (Iraq). One section (62m thick) has been measured in the field and closely sampled to undertake detailed microfaciesal and micropalaeontological studies to determine the formation-s age and environment of deposition. A samples were collected illustrating all the lithological changes along the section. The limestone in the studied area is hard and extremely rich in large foraminifers (soritids, rotaliids, nummulites, miliolids) and green algae (dasycladales). The investigation of the thin sections allowed us to identify the carbonate microfacies (18 types and subtypes) and the micropaleontological association (foraminifers and green algae), to determine the age of formation and to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of deposition (fore-reef, reef, back-reef). Based on the field observations and the studied thin sections, we determined three Units of a carbonate platform (I, II and III) from the base to the top of the section: Unit I with coralgal associations, Unit II is dominated by larger foraminifers and haracterized by the absence of coralgal associations, while Unit III is dominated by small foraminifers (mostly miliolids), peloids and green algae. It is partially dolomitized.
Abstract: Food and fibre production in arid and semi-arid regions has emerged as one of the major challenges for various socio-economic and political reasons such as the food security and self-sufficiency. Productive use of the renewable water resources has risen on top ofthe decision-making agenda. For this reason, efficient operation and maintenance of modern irrigation and drainage schemes become part and parcel and indispensible reality in agricultural policy making arena. The aim of this paper is to investigate the complexity of operating and maintaining such schemes, mainly focussing on challenges which enhance and opportunities that impedsustainable food and fibre production. The methodology involved using secondary data complemented byroutine observations and stakeholders views on issues that influence the O&M in the Dez command area. The SPSS program was used as an analytical framework for data analysis and interpretation.Results indicate poor application efficiency in most croplands, much of which is attributed to deficient operation of conveyance and distribution canals. These in turn, are reportedly linked to inadequate maintenance of the pumping stations and hydraulic structures like turnouts,flumes and other control systems particularly in the secondary and tertiary canals. Results show that the aforementioned deficiencies have been the major impediment to establishing regular flow toward the farm gates which subsequently undermine application efficiency and tillage operationsat farm level. Results further show that accumulative impact of such deficiencies has been the major causes of poorcrop yield and quality that deem production system in these croplands uneconomic. Results further show that the present state might undermine the sustainability of agricultural system in the command area. The overall conclusion being that present water management is unlikely to be responsive to challenges that the sector faces. And in the absence of coherent measures to shift the status quo situation in favour of more productive resource use, it would be hard to fulfil the objectives of the National Economic and Socio-cultural Development Plans.
Abstract: A physically based, spatially-distributed water quality model is being developed to simulate spatial and temporal distributions of material transport in the Great Lakes Watersheds of the U.S. Multiple databases of meteorology, land use, topography, hydrography, soils, agricultural statistics, and water quality were used to estimate nonpoint source loading potential in the study watersheds. Animal manure production was computed from tabulations of animals by zip code area for the census years of 1987, 1992, 1997, and 2002. Relative chemical loadings for agricultural land use were calculated from fertilizer and pesticide estimates by crop for the same periods. Comparison of these estimates to the monitored total phosphorous load indicates that both point and nonpoint sources are major contributors to the total nutrient loads in the study watersheds, with nonpoint sources being the largest contributor, particularly in the rural watersheds. These estimates are used as the input to the distributed water quality model for simulating pollutant transport through surface and subsurface processes to Great Lakes waters. Visualization and GIS interfaces are developed to visualize the spatial and temporal distribution of the pollutant transport in support of water management programs.
Abstract: Energy dissipation in drops has been investigated by
physical models. After determination of effective parameters on the
phenomenon, three drops with different heights have been
constructed from Plexiglas. They have been installed in two existing
flumes in the hydraulic laboratory. Several runs of physical models
have been undertaken to measured required parameters for
determination of the energy dissipation. Results showed that the
energy dissipation in drops depend on the drop height and discharge.
Predicted relative energy dissipations varied from 10.0% to 94.3%.
This work has also indicated that the energy loss at drop is mainly
due to the mixing of the jet with the pool behind the jet that causes
air bubble entrainment in the flow. Statistical model has been
developed to predict the energy dissipation in vertical drops denotes
nonlinear correlation between effective parameters. Further an
artificial neural networks (ANNs) approach was used in this paper to
develop an explicit procedure for calculating energy loss at drops
using NeuroSolutions. Trained network was able to predict the
response with R2 and RMSE 0.977 and 0.0085 respectively. The
performance of ANN was found effective when compared to
regression equations in predicting the energy loss.
Abstract: The relationship between tropical cyclogenesis and solar activity is addressed in this paper, analyzing the relationship between important parameters in the evolution of tropical cyclones as the CAPE, wind shear and relative vorticity, and the Dst geomagnetic index as a parameter of solar activity. The apparent relationship between all this phenomena has a different response depending on the phase of the solar cycles.
Abstract: The use of radar in Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) for radar-rainfall measurement is significantly beneficial. Radar has advantages in terms of high spatial and temporal condition in rainfall measurement and also forecasting. In Malaysia, radar application in QPE is still new and needs to be explored. This paper focuses on the Z/R derivation works of radarrainfall estimation based on rainfall classification. The works developed new Z/R relationships for Klang River Basin in Selangor area for three different general classes of rain events, namely low (10mm/hr, 30mm/hr) and also on more specific rain types during monsoon seasons. Looking at the high potential of Doppler radar in QPE, the newly formulated Z/R equations will be useful in improving the measurement of rainfall for any hydrological application, especially for flood forecasting.
Abstract: This paper observed the interhemispheric conjugate
auroral activity occurred on 21 September 2009. The GPS derived
ionospheric total electron content (TEC) during a weak substorm
interval recorded at interhemispheric conjugate points at Husafell in
Iceland and Syowa in Antarctica is investigated to look at their
signatures on the auroral features. Selection of all-sky camera (ASC)
images and keogram at Tjörnes and Syowa during the interval
00:47:54 – 00:50:14 UT on 21 September 2009 found that the auroral
activity had exerted their influence on the GPS TEC as a
consequence of varying interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By
Abstract: Rainfall records of rainfall station including the
rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are
explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula
is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood
detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood
detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control
theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research.
When rainfall frequency of one hour rainfall duration is more than
100-year frequency which exceeds the flood detention standard of
20-year frequency for the flood detention pond, the flood peak
duration of flood detention pond is 1.7 hours at most even though the
flood detention pond with maximum drainage potential about 15.0
m3/s of pumping system is constructed. If the rainfall peak current is
more than maximum drainage potential, the flood peak duration of
flood detention pond is about 1.9 hours at most. The flood detention
pond is the key factor of stable drainage control and flood prevention.
The critical factors of flood disaster is not only rainfall mass, but also
rainfall frequency of heavy storm in different rainfall duration and
flood detention frequency of flood detention system.
Abstract: Eight heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and As) were analyzed in sediment samples in the dry and wet seasons from November 2009 to October 2010 in West Port of Peninsular Malaysia. The heavy metal concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were ranged from 23.4 to 98.3 for Zn, 22.3 to 80 for Pb, 7.4 to 27.6 Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 20.2 to 162 for As, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg and 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr. Metals concentrations in dry season were higher than the rainy season except in cupper and chromium. Analysis of variance with Statistical Analysis System (SAS) shows that the mean concentration of metals in the two seasons (α level=0.05) are not significantly different which shows that the metals were held firmly in the matrix of sediment. Also there are significant differences between control point station with other stations. According to the Interim Sediment Quality guidelines (ISQG), the metal concentrations are moderately polluted, except in arsenic which shows the highest level of pollution.