Abstract: Ventilation is a fundamental requirement for
occupant health and indoor air quality in buildings. Natural
ventilation can be used as a design strategy in free-running
• Renew indoor air with fresh outside air and lower room
temperatures at times when the outdoor air is cooler.
• Promote air flow to cool down the building structure
• Promote occupant physiological cooling processes
This paper focuses on ways in which ventilation can
provide the mechanism for heat dissipation and cooling of the
building structure..It also discusses use of ventilation as a
means of increasing air movement to improve comfort when
indoor air temperatures are too high. The main influencing
factors and design considerations and quantitative guidelines
to help meet the design objectives are also discussed.
Abstract: These Nowadays the explosion of bombs or explosive
materials such as gas and oil near or inside the buildings cause some
losses in installations and building components. This has made the
engineers to make the buildings and their components resistance
against the effects of explosion. These activities lead to provide
regulations and different methods. The above regulations are mostly
focused on the explosion effects resulting from the vehicles around
the buildings. Therefore, the explosion resulting from the vehicles
outside the buildings will be studied in this research.
In the present study, the main goals are to investigate the
explosion load effects on the structures located on the piles with the
specific quantity of plasticity and observing the permissible response
of these structures. The concentrated mass system and the spring with
two degree of freedom will be used to study the structural system.
Abstract: Built environments have a large impact on environmental sustainability and if it is not considered properly can negatively affect our planet. The application of transformable intelligent building systems that automatically respond to environmental conditions is one of the best ways that can intelligently assist us to create sustainable environment. The significance of this issue is evident as energy crisis and environmental changes has made the sustainability the main concerns in many societies. The aim of this research is to review and evaluate the importance and influence of transformable intelligent structure on the creation of sustainable architecture. Intelligent systems in current buildings provide convenience through automatically responding to changes in environmental conditions, reducing energy dissipation and increase of the lifecycle of buildings. This paper by analyzing significant intelligent building systems will evaluate the potentials of transformable intelligent systems in the creation of sustainable architecture and environment.
Abstract: It is not easy to imagine how the existing city can be
converted to the principles of sustainability, however, the need for
innovation, requires a pioneering phase which must address the main
problems of rehabilitation of the operating models of the city. Today,
however, there is a growing awareness that the identification and
implementation of policies and measures to promote the adaptation,
resilience and reversibility of the city, require the contribution of our
discipline. This breakthrough is present in some recent international
experiences of Climate Plans, in which the envisaged measures are
closely interwoven with those of urban planning. These experiences,
provide some answers principle questions, such as: how the strategies
to combat climate can be integrated in the instruments of the local
government; what new and specific analysis must be introduced in
urban planning in order to understand the issues of urban
sustainability, and how the project compares with different spatial
Abstract: This paper investigated the impact of ceiling height and window head heights variation on daylighting inside architectural teaching studio with a full width window. In architectural education, using the studio is more than normal classroom in most credit hours. Therefore, window position, size and dimension of studio have direct influence on level of daylighting. Daylighting design is a critical factor that improves student learning, concentration and behavior, in addition to these, it also reduces energy consumption. The methodology of analysis involves using Radiance in IES software under overcast and cloudy sky in Malaysia. It has been established that presentation of daylighting of architecture studio can be enhanced by changing the ceiling heights and window level, because, different ceiling heights and window head heights can contribute to different range of daylight levels.
Abstract: As a result of the high cost of housing, the increasing population is forced to live in substandard housing and unhealthy conditions giving rise to poor residential neighborhoods. The paper examines the causes and characteristics of poor residential neighborhood. The paper finds the problems that have influence poor neighborhoods to; poverty, growth of informal sector and housing shortage. The paper asserts that poor residential neighborhoods have adverse effects on the people.
The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers while primary data relating to building and environmental quality from structured questionnaire administered on sample of 500 household heads, from sampling frame of 5000 housing units.
The study reveals that majority of the respondents are poor and employed in informal sector. The paper suggests urban renewal and slum upgrading programs as methods in dealing with the situation and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants.
Abstract: Stairway Ushtobin Village is one of the five villages with original and sustainable architecture in Northwest of Iran along the border of Armenia, which has been able to maintain its environment and sustainable ecosystem. Studying circulation, function and scale (grand, medium and minor) of space, ratio of full and empty spaces, number and height of stairs, ratio of compound volume to luxury spaces, openings, type of local masonry (stone, mud, wood) and form of covering elements have been carried out in four houses of this village comparatively as some samples in this article, and furthermore, this article analyzes that the architectural shapes and organic texture of the village meet the needs of cold and dry climate. Finally, some efficient plans are offered suiting the present needs of the village to have a sustainable architecture.
Abstract: There-s a lack in understanding the indoor climate of Malaysian residential. The assumption of traditional house could
provide the best indoor environment is too good to be true. This research is to understand indoor environment in three types of
Malaysian residential and thermo recorder TR72Ui were placed in
indoor spaces for measurement. There are huge differences of indoor
environment between housing types, and building material helps to control indoor climate. Traditional house indoor climate was similar to
the outdoor. Temperature in the bedroom of terrace and town houses were slightly higher than the living room. Indoor temperature was 2oC
lower in the rainy season than the hot season. It was hard to control
indoor humidity level in traditional house compared with terrace and
town house. As for conclusion, town house provides the best thermal
environment to the building occupants and can be improved with good
Abstract: Quality evaluation of urban environment is an integral
part of efficient urban environment planning and management. The
development of fuzzy set theory (FST) and the introduction of FST
to the urban study field attempts to incorporate the gradual variation
and avoid loss of information. Urban environmental quality
assessment pertain to interpretation and forecast of the urban
environmental quality according to the national regulation about the
permitted content of contamination for the sake of protecting human
health and subsistence environment . A strategic motor vehicle
control strategy has to be proposed to mitigate the air pollution in the
city. There is no well defined guideline for the assessment of urban
air pollution and no systematic study has been reported so far for
Indian cities. The methodology adopted may be useful in similar
cities of India. Remote sensing & GIS can play significant role in
mapping air pollution.
Abstract: Studying literature theme in the fields of tourism and
sustainable development and its importance in today world and their
criteria in architecture, here in this article we will also study the area
where the selected site is located; beside the Aab-Ask Village located
in Larijan region in Mazandaran province on the way to Haraz – one
of the tourism routes of Iran. After these studies by analyzing the
site, its strong potentials – such as mineral water springs (hot
springs), geothermal, landscapes and ideal climate - as a tourist
attraction spot in the region, and considering sustainable
development criteria – with regard to limits and available facilities –
a plan was offered that could change the region to provide the needs
of local people and in addition change it to a place where tourism
services is offered to the visitors and make it an acceptable sample of
stable building in Iran. Finally the reason to make design for this
complex is recovery of natural and historical values of Aab-Ask area
regarding development and sustainable architecture criteria in the
form of a functional sample which can be a suitable place to fulfill
this goal for having lots of strong points in attracting cultural and
Abstract: In recent years, “Bottom-up Planning Approach" has been widely accepted and expanded from planning theorists. Citizen participation becomes more important in decision-making in informal settlements. Many of previous projects and strategies due to ignorance of citizen participation, have been failed facing with informal settlements and in some cases lead physical expansion of these neighbourhoods. According to recent experiences, the new participatory approach was in somehow successful. This paper focuses on local experiences in Iran. A considerable amount of people live in informal settlements in Iran. With the previous methods, the government could not solve the problems of these settlements. It is time to examine new methods such as empowerment of the local citizens and involve them to solve the current physical, social, and economic problems. The paper aims to address the previous and new strategies facing with informal settlements, the conditions under which citizens could be involved in planning process, limits and potentials of this process, the main actors and issues and finally motivations that are able to promote citizen participation. Documentary studies, observation, interview and questionnaire have been used to achieve the above mentioned objectives. Nearly 80 percent of responder in Saadi Community are ready to participate in regularising their neighbourhoods, if pre-conditions of citizen involvement are being provided. These pre-conditions include kind of problem and its severity, the importance of issue, existence of a short-term solution, etc. Moreover, confirmation of dweller-s ownership can promote the citizen engagement in participatory projects.
Abstract: Iran has diverse climates and each have established distinct properties in their area. The extent and intensity of climatic factors effects on the lives of people living in various regions of Iran is so great that it cannot be simply ignored. In a large part of Iran known as the Central Plateau there is no precipitation for more than half of the year and dry weather and scarcity of fresh water pose an ever present problem for the people of these regions while in north of Iran upon the southern shores of the Caspian Sea the people face 80% humidity caused by the sea and 2 meters of annual precipitation. This article tries to review the past experiences of local architecture of Iran-s various regions so that they can be used to reshape and redirect the urban areas and structure of Iran-s current cities to provide environmental comfort by minimum use of fossil fuels.
Abstract: Even though so many efforts have been taken to
renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and
dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of
significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of
those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as
well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities,
recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of
great significance to attain sustainable residence in villages. As the
only vertical surface in the space, wall possesses its unique special
characteristics, and it is also a very important architectural element
able to provide the immunity and comfort space for the residents.
This article analyzes the characteristics of this vertical element, main
types of adobe and stone walls, locally constructed technologies,
implementation, the elements forming the walls in the frame of
village house typology of Miyaneh, which has the most villages in
East Azerbaijan, based on sustainable architectural construction
materials of walls.
Abstract: Continuous measurements and multivariate methods are applied in researching the effects of energy consumption on indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish one-family house. Measured data used in this study was collected continuously in a house in Kuopio, Eastern Finland, during fourteen months long period. Consumption parameters measured were the consumptions of district heat, electricity and water. Indoor parameters gathered were temperature, relative humidity (RH), the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) and differential air pressure. In this study, self-organizing map (SOM) and Sammon's mapping were applied to resolve the effects of energy consumption on indoor air quality. Namely, the SOM was qualified as a suitable method having a property to summarize the multivariable dependencies into easily observable two-dimensional map. Accompanying that, the Sammon's mapping method was used to cluster pre-processed data to find similarities of the variables, expressing distances and groups in the data. The methods used were able to distinguish 7 different clusters characterizing indoor air quality and energy efficiency in the study house. The results indicate, that the cost implications in euros of heating and electricity energy vary according to the differential pressure, concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature and season.
Abstract: A novel and versatile numerical technique to solve a self-stress equilibrium state is adopted herein as a form-finding procedure for an irregular tensegrity structure. The numerical form-finding scheme of a tensegrity structure uses only the connectivity matrix and prototype tension coefficient vector as the initial guess solution. Any information on the symmetrical geometry or other predefined initial structural conditions is not necessary to get the solution in the form-finding process. An eight-node initial condition example is presented to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method in the form-finding of an irregular tensegrity structure. Based on the conception from the form-finding of an eight-node irregular tensegrity structure, a monumental object is designed by considering the real world situation such as self-weight, wind and earthquake loadings.
Abstract: Air conditioning systems of houses consume large
quantity of electricity. To reducing energy consumption for air
conditioning purposes it is becoming attractive the use of evaporative
cooling air conditioning which is less energy consuming compared to
air chillers. But, it is obvious that higher energy efficiency of
evaporative cooling is not enough to judge whether evaporative
cooling economically is competitive with other types of cooling
systems. To proving the higher energy efficiency and cost
effectiveness of the evaporative cooling competitive analysis of
various types of cooling system should be accomplished. For noted
purpose optimization mathematical model for each system should be
composed based on system approach analysis. In this paper different
types of evaporative cooling-heating systems are discussed and
methods for increasing their energy efficiency and as well as
determining of their design parameters are developed. The
optimization mathematical models for each of them are composed
with help of which least specific costs for each of them are reviled.
The comparison of specific costs proved that the most efficient and
cost effective is considered the “direct evaporating" system if it is
applicable for given climatic conditions. Next more universal and
applicable for many climatic conditions system providing least cost
of heating and cooling is considered the “direct evaporating" system.
Abstract: A hotel mainly uses its energy on water heating, space
heating, refrigeration, space cooling, cooking, lighting and other
building services. A number of 4-5 stars hotels in Auckland city are
selected for this study. Comparing with the energy used for others,
the energy used for the internal space thermal control (e.g. internal
space heating) is more closely related to the hotel building itself.
This study not only investigates relationship between annual energy
(and winter energy) consumptions and building design data but also
relationships between winter extra energy consumption and building
design data. This study is to identify the major design factors that
significantly impact hotel energy consumption for improving the
future hotel design for energy efficient.
Abstract: The utilisation of Industrial Building System (IBS) in construction industry will lead to a safe site condition since minimum numbers of workers are required to be on-site, timely material delivery, systematic component storage, reduction of construction material and waste. These matters are being promoted in the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP 2006-2015). However, the enabling factors of IBS that will foster a safer working environment are indefinite; on that basis a research has been conducted. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and identify the relevant factors towards safety improvement for IBS. A quantitative research by way of questionnaire surveys have been conducted to 314 construction companies. The target group was Grade 5 to Grade 7 contractors registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) which specialise in IBS. The findings disclosed seven factors linked to the safety improvement of IBS construction site in Malaysia. The factors were historical, economic, psychological, technical, procedural, organisational and the environmental factors. From the findings, a psychological factor ranked as the highest and most crucial factor contributing to safer IBS construction site. The psychological factor included the self-awareness and influences from workmates behaviour. Followed by organisational factors, where project management style will encourage the safety efforts. From the procedural factors, it was also found that training was one of the significant factors to improve safety culture of IBS construction site. Another important finding that formed as a part of the environmental factor was storage of IBS components, in which proper planning of the layout would able to contribute to a safer site condition. To conclude, in order to improve safety of IBS construction site, a welltrained and skilled workers are required for IBS projects, thus proper training is permissible and should be emphasised.
Abstract: Building maintenance plays an important role among other activities in building operation. Building defect and damages are part of the building maintenance 'bread and butter' as their input indicated in the building inspection is very much justified, particularly as to determine the building performance. There will be no escape route or short cut from building maintenance work. This study attempts to identify a competitive performance that translates the Critical Success Factor achievements and satisfactorily meet the university-s expectation. The quality and efficiency of maintenance management operation of building depends, to some extent, on the building condition information, the expectation from the university sector and the works carried out for each maintenance activity. This paper reviews the critical success factor in building maintenance management practice for university sectors from four (4) perspectives which include (1) customer (2) internal processes (3) financial and (4) learning and growth perspective. The enhancement of these perspectives is capable to reach the maintenance management goal for a better living environment in university campus.
Abstract: The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed
roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces
during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed
and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to
adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded
by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field
studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain'
houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010.
Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to
floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested
at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months.
Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships
between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain'
house to improve the future house design for building thermal
comfort and energy efficiency