Abstract: Groundwater is an important water resource in the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, 141 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters to assess the irrigation water quality using six indicators (sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), and potential salinity (PS)). The results show that the patterns for the average cation and anion concentrations were in decreasing orders of Na＋ > Mg2＋ > Ca2＋ > K＋and SO42－ > HCO3－ > Cl－ > NO3－ > CO32－ > F－, respectively. The values of Na%, MH, and PS show that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation. The same conclusion is drawn from the USSL and Wilcox diagrams. PS values indicate that Cl－and SO42－have a great influence on irrigation water in Jiaokou Irrigation District. RSC and PI values indicate that more than half of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation. The finding is beneficial for the policymakers for future water management schemes to achieve a sustainable development goal.
Abstract: Groundwater is main source of water supply in the Guanzhong Basin, China. To investigate the quality of groundwater for agricultural purposes in Jiaokou Irrigation District located in the east of the Guanzhong Basin, 141 groundwater samples were collected for analysis of major ions (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-, Cl-, HCO3-, and CO32-), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). Sodium percentage (Na%), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH), and potential salinity (PS) were applied for irrigation water quality assessment. In addition, multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the underlying hydrogeochemical processes. Results show that the content of TDS mainly depends on Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, and SO42-, and the HCO3- content is generally high except for the eastern sand area. These are responsible for complex hydrogeochemical processes, such as dissolution of carbonate minerals (dolomite and calcite), gypsum, halite, and silicate minerals, the cation exchange, as well as evaporation and concentration. The average evaluation levels of Na%, RSC, MH, and PS for irrigation water quality are doubtful, good, unsuitable, and injurious to unsatisfactory, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary for decision makers to comprehensively consider the indicators and thus reasonably evaluate the irrigation water quality.
Abstract: The crossover probability and mutation probability are the two important factors in genetic algorithm. The adaptive genetic algorithm can improve the convergence performance of genetic algorithm, in which the crossover probability and mutation probability are adaptively designed with the changes of fitness value. We apply adaptive genetic algorithm into a function optimization problem. The numerical experiment represents that adaptive genetic algorithm improves the convergence speed and avoids local convergence.
Abstract: Energy consumption of a hotel can be a hot topic in
smart city; it is difficult to evaluate the contribution of impact factors
to energy consumption of a hotel. Therefore, grasping the key impact
factors has great effect on the energy saving management of a hotel.
Based on the SPIRTPAT model, we establish the identity with the
impact factors of occupancy rate, unit area of revenue, temperature
factor, unit revenue of energy consumption. In this paper, we use the
LMDI (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index) to decompose the impact
factors of energy consumption of hotel from Jan. to Dec. in 2001. The
results indicate that the occupancy rate and unit area of revenue are the
main factors that can increase unit area of energy consumption, and the
unit revenue of energy consumption is the main factor to restrain the
growth of unit area of energy consumption. When the energy
consumption of hotel can appear abnormal, the hotel manager can
carry out energy saving management and control according to the
contribution value of impact factors.
Abstract: Genetic algorithm is widely used in optimization
problems for its excellent global search capabilities and highly parallel
processing capabilities; but, it converges prematurely and has a poor
local optimization capability in actual operation. Simulated annealing
algorithm can avoid the search process falling into local optimum. A
hybrid genetic algorithm based on simulated annealing is designed by
combining the advantages of genetic algorithm and simulated
annealing algorithm. The numerical experiment represents the hybrid
genetic algorithm can be applied to solve the function optimization