Abstract: Sightseeing glass bridges located in steep valley area are being built on a large scale owing to the development of tourism. Consequently, their aerostatic stability is seriously affected by the wind field characteristics created by strong wind and special terrain, such as wind speed and wind attack angle. For instance, a cable-stayed pedestrian bridge without backstays comprised of a 60-m cantilever girder and the glass bridge deck is located in an abrupt valley, acting as a viewing platform. The bridge’s nonlinear aerostatic stability was analyzed by the segmental model test and numerical simulation in this paper. Based on aerostatic coefficients of the main girder measured in wind tunnel tests, nonlinear influences caused by the structure and aerostatic load, inhomogeneous distribution of torsion angle along the bridge axis, and the influence of initial attack angle were analyzed by using the incremental double iteration method. The results show that the aerostatic response varying with speed shows an obvious nonlinearity, and the aerostatic instability mode is of the characteristic of space deformation of bending-twisting coupling mode. The vertical and torsional deformation of the main girder is larger than its lateral deformation, with the wind speed approaching the critical wind speed. The flow of negative attack angle will reduce the bridges’ critical stability wind speed, but the influence of the negative attack angle on the aerostatic stability is more significant than that of the positive attack angle. The critical wind speeds of torsional divergence and lateral buckling are both larger than 200 m/s; namely, the bridge will not occur aerostatic instability under the action of various wind attack angles.
Abstract: Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.
Abstract: Significant legislative changes are set to revolutionise the commercial shipping industry. Upcoming emissions restrictions will force operators to look at technologies that can improve the efficiency of their vessels -reducing fuel consumption and emissions. A device which may help in this challenge is the Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion system (SWAP), an actively controlled aerofoil mounted vertically on the deck of a ship. The device functions in a similar manner to a sail on a yacht, whereby the aerodynamic forces generated by the sail reach an equilibrium with the hydrodynamic forces on the hull and a forward velocity results. Numerical and experimental testing of the SWAP device is presented in this study. Circulation control takes the form of a co-flow jet aerofoil, utilising both blowing from the leading edge and suction from the trailing edge. A jet at the leading edge uses the Coanda effect to energise the boundary layer in order to delay flow separation and create high lift with low drag. The SWAP concept has been originated by the research and development team at SMAR Azure Ltd. The device will be retrofitted to existing ships so that a component of the aerodynamic forces acts forward and partially reduces the reliance on existing propulsion systems. Wind tunnel tests have been carried out at the de Havilland wind tunnel at the University of Glasgow on a 1:20 scale model of this system. The tests aim to understand the airflow characteristics around the aerofoil and investigate the approximate lift and drag coefficients that an early iteration of the SWAP device may produce. The data exhibits clear trends of increasing lift as injection momentum increases, with critical flow attachment points being identified at specific combinations of jet momentum coefficient, Cµ, and angle of attack, AOA. Various combinations of flow conditions were tested, with the jet momentum coefficient ranging from 0 to 0.7 and the AOA ranging from 0° to 35°. The Reynolds number across the tested conditions ranged from 80,000 to 240,000. Comparisons between 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and the experimental data are presented for multiple Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in the form of normalised surface pressure comparisons. These show good agreement for most of the tested cases. However, certain simulation conditions exhibited a well-documented shortcoming of RANS-based turbulence models for circulation control flows and over-predicted surface pressures and lift coefficient for fully attached flow cases. Work must be continued in finding an all-encompassing modelling approach which predicts surface pressures well for all combinations of jet injection momentum and AOA.
Abstract: Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic
aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component
testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for
complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing
need to be taken into account in any design work related to the
component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a
straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50
m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its
attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from
the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test
section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the
corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements
provide valuable but limited information of overall aerodynamic
behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and
the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at
zero angle of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool,
plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and
except the value of zero lift coefficients, the overall trend has under
predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a
correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained
from the panel method.
Abstract: Traditional wind tunnel models are meticulously machined from metal in a process that can take several months. While very precise, the manufacturing process is too slow to assess a new design's feasibility quickly. Rapid prototyping technology makes this concurrent study of air vehicle concepts via computer simulation and in the wind tunnel possible. This paper described the Affects layer thickness models product with rapid prototyping on Aerodynamic Coefficients for Constructed wind tunnel testing models. Three models were evaluated. The first model was a 0.05mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.1μm (Ra) second model was a 0.125mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.22μm (Ra) third model was a 0.15mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 4.6μm (Ra). These models were fabricated from somos 18420 by a stereolithography (SLA). A wing-body-tail configuration was chosen for the actual study. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9 at an angle-of-attack range of -2° to +12° at zero sideslip. Coefficients of normal force, axial force, pitching moment, and lift over drag are shown at each of these Mach numbers. Results from this study show that layer thickness does have an effect on the aerodynamic characteristics in general; the data differ between the three models by fewer than 5%. The layer thickness does have more effect on the aerodynamic characteristics when Mach number is decreased and had most effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of axial force and its derivative coefficients.
Abstract: Extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted to
investigate the unsteady flow field over and behind a 2D model of a
660 kW wind turbine blade section in pitching motion. The surface
pressure and wake dynamic pressure variation at a distance of 1.5
chord length from trailing edge were measured by pressure
transducers during several oscillating cycles at 3 reduced frequencies
and oscillating amplitudes. Moreover, form drag and linear
momentum deficit are extracted and compared at various conditions.
The results show that the wake velocity field and surface pressure of
the model have similar behavior before and after the airfoil beyond
the static stall angle of attack. In addition, the effects of reduced
frequency and oscillation amplitudes are discussed.
Abstract: Traditionally, wind tunnel models are made of metal
and are very expensive. In these years, everyone is looking for ways
to do more with less. Under the right test conditions, a rapid
prototype part could be tested in a wind tunnel. Using rapid prototype
manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly
reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This
study was done of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and their ability
to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost
effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel
model configuration constructed using FDM for transonic wind
tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid
prototyping model constructed of FDM Technologies using
polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Testing
covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.75 at an angle-ofattack
range of - 2° to +12°. Results from this study show relatively
good agreement between the two models and rapid prototyping
Method reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models.
It can be concluded from this study that wind tunnel models
constructed using rapid prototyping method and materials can be
used in wind tunnel testing for initial baseline aerodynamic database