Abstract: TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal
method at 180°C from TiOSO4 aqueous solution with1m/l
concentration. The obtained products were coated with silica by
means of a seeded polymerization technique for a coating time of
1440 minutes to obtain well defined [email protected] core-shell structure.
The uncoated and coated nanoparticles were characterized by using
X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study their physico-chemical properties.
Evidence from XRD and FTIR results show that SiO2 is
homogenously coated on the surface of titania particles. FTIR spectra
show that there exists an interaction between TiO2 and SiO2 and
results in the formation of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds at the interface of
TiO2 particles and SiO2 coating layer. The non linear optical limiting
properties of TiO2 and [email protected] nanoparticles dispersed in
ethylene glycol were studied at 532nm using 5ns Nd:YAG laser
pulses. Three-photon absorption is responsible for optical limiting
characteristics in these nanoparticles and it is seen that the optical
nonlinearity is enhanced in core-shell structures when compared with
single counterparts. This effective three-photon type absorption at
this wavelength, is of potential application in fabricating optical
Abstract: The investigation results of high-density hydrogen
heating by high-current electric arc are presented at initial pressure
from 5 MPa to 160 MPa with current amplitude up to 1.6 MA and
current rate of rise 109-1011 A/s. When changing the initial pressure
and current rate of rise, channel temperature varies from several
electronvolts to hundreds electronvolts. Arc channel radius is several
millimeters. But the radius of the discharge chamber greater than the
radius of the arc channel on approximately order of magnitude. High
efficiency of gas heating is caused by radiation absorption of
hydrogen surrounding the arc. Current channel consist from vapor of
the initiating wire. At current rate of rise of 109 A/s and relatively
small current amplitude gas heating occurs due to radiation
absorption in the band transparency of hydrogen by the wire vapours
with photon energies less than 13.6 eV. At current rate of rise of
1011 A/s gas heating is due to hydrogen absorption of soft X-rays
from discharge channel.
Abstract: We prove detailed analysis of a waveguide-based Schottky barrier photodetector (SBPD) where a thin silicide film is put on the top of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) channel waveguide to absorb light propagating along the waveguide. Taking both the confinement factor of light absorption and the wall scanning induced gain of the photoexcited carriers into account, an optimized silicide thickness is extracted to maximize the effective gain, thereby the responsivity. For typical lengths of the thin silicide film (10-20 Ðçm), the optimized thickness is estimated to be in the range of 1-2 nm, and only about 50-80% light power is absorbed to reach the maximum responsivity. Resonant waveguide-based SBPDs are proposed, which consist of a microloop, microdisc, or microring waveguide structure to allow light multiply propagating along the circular Si waveguide beneath the thin silicide film. Simulation results suggest that such resonant waveguide-based SBPDs have much higher repsonsivity at the resonant wavelengths as compared to the straight waveguidebased detectors. Some experimental results about Si waveguide-based SBPD are also reported.
Abstract: We propose a decoy-pulse protocol for frequency-coded implementation of B92 quantum key distribution protocol. A direct extension of decoy-pulse method to frequency-coding scheme results in security loss as an eavesdropper can distinguish between signal and decoy pulses by measuring the carrier photon number without affecting other statistics. We overcome this problem by optimizing the ratio of carrier photon number of decoy-to-signal pulse to be as close to unity as possible. In our method the switching between signal and decoy pulses is achieved by changing the amplitude of RF signal as opposed to modulating the intensity of optical signal thus reducing system cost. We find an improvement by a factor of 100 approximately in the key generation rate using decoy-state protocol. We also study the effect of source fluctuation on key rate. Our simulation results show a key generation rate of 1.5×10-4/pulse for link lengths up to 70km. Finally, we discuss the optimum value of average photon number of signal pulse for a given key rate while also optimizing the carrier ratio.
Abstract: Accurate timing alignment and stability is important
to maximize the true counts and minimize the random counts in
positron emission tomography So signals output from detectors must
be centering with the two isotopes to pre-operation and fed signals
into four units of pulse-processing units, each unit can accept up to
eight inputs. The dual source computed tomography consist two units
on the left for 15 detector signals of Cs-137 isotope and two units on
the right are for 15 detectors signals of Co-60 isotope. The gamma
spectrum consisting of either single or multiple photo peaks. This
allows for the use of energy discrimination electronic hardware
associated with the data acquisition system to acquire photon counts
data with a specific energy, even if poor energy resolution detectors
are used. This also helps to avoid counting of the Compton scatter
counts especially if a single discrete gamma photo peak is emitted by
the source as in the case of Cs-137. In this study the polyenergetic
version of the alternating minimization algorithm is applied to the
dual energy gamma computed tomography problem.
Abstract: This paper presents a model for the characterization
and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the
manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using
megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was
divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to
the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of
the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of
physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam
attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax
evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly
used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient
in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators.
The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment
of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for
Abstract: A compact 1x3 power splitter based on Photonic
Crystal Waveguides (PCW) with flexible power splitting ratio is
presented in this paper. Multimode interference coupler (MMI) is
integrated with PCW. The device size reduction compared with the
conventional MMI power splitter is attributed to the large dispersion
of the PCW. Band Solve tool is used to calculate the band structure of
PCW. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is adopted to
simulate the relevant structure at 1550nm wavelength. The device is
polarization insensitive and allows the control of output (o/p) powers
within certain percentage points for both polarizations.
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.
Abstract: We propose the use of magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) to realize single-qubit quantum gates. We consider longitudinal and polar MOKE in reflection geometry in which the magnetic field is parallel to both the plane of incidence and surface of the film. MOKE couples incident TE and TM polarized photons and the Hamiltonian that represents this interaction is isomorphic to that of a canonical two-level quantum system. By varying the phase and amplitude of the magnetic field, we can realize Hadamard, NOT, and arbitrary phase-shift single-qubit quantum gates. The principal advantage is operation with magnetically non-transparent materials.
Abstract: Although silicon photonic devices provide a significantly larger bandwidth and dissipate a substantially less power than the electronic devices, they suffer from a large size due to the fundamental diffraction limit and the weak optical response of Si. A potential solution is to exploit Si plasmonics, which may not only miniaturize the photonic device far beyond the diffraction limit, but also enhance the optical response in Si due to the electromagnetic field confinement. In this paper, we discuss and summarize the recently developed metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide as well as various passive and active plasmonic components based on this waveguide, including coupler, bend, power splitter, ring resonator, MZI, modulator, detector, etc. All these plasmonic components are CMOS compatible and could be integrated with electronic and conventional dielectric photonic devices on the same SOI chip. More potential plasmonic devices as well as plasmonic nanocircuits with complex functionalities are also addressed.
Abstract: A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with
negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is
demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and
optical coherence are not affected on this filter.
Abstract: Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply
the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few
LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant
factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is
expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control
system was developed.
The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic
Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the number of LED, are
installed on the blades, set; using the Lighting Simulation
Program.Relux, it is able to confirm that the difference of the beam
intensity between the center and the outer of lighting system when the
lighting device is rotating.
Abstract: Ovshinsky initiated scientific research in the field of
amorphous and disordered materials that continues to this day. The
Ovshinsky Effect where the resistance of thin GST films is
significantly reduced upon the application of low voltage is of
fundamental importance in phase-change - random access memory
(PC-RAM) devices.GST stands for GdSbTe chalcogenide type
glasses.However, the Ovshinsky Effect is not without controversy.
Ovshinsky thought the resistance of GST films is reduced by the
redistribution of charge carriers; whereas, others at that time including
many PC-RAM researchers today argue that the GST resistance
changes because the GST amorphous state is transformed to the
crystalline state by melting, the heat supplied by external heaters. In
this controversy, quantum mechanics (QM) asserts the heat capacity of
GST films vanishes, and therefore melting cannot occur as the heat
supplied cannot be conserved by an increase in GST film
temperature.By precluding melting, QM re-opens the controversy
between the melting and charge carrier mechanisms. Supporting
analysis is presented to show that instead of increasing GST film
temperature, conservation proceeds by the QED induced creation of
photons within the GST film, the QED photons confined by TIR. QED
stands for quantum electrodynamics and TIR for total internal
reflection. The TIR confinement of QED photons is enhanced by the
fact the absorbedheat energy absorbed in the GST film is concentrated
in the TIR mode because of their high surface to volume ratio. The
QED photons having Planck energy beyond the ultraviolet produce
excitons by the photoelectric effect, the electrons and holes of which
reduce the GST film resistance.
Abstract: Photonic Crystal (PhC) based devices are being
increasingly used in multifunctional, compact devices in integrated
optical communication systems. They provide excellent
controllability of light, yet maintaining the small size required for
miniaturization. In this paper, the band gap properties of PhCs and
their typical applications in optical waveguiding are considered.
Novel PhC based applications such as nonlinear switching and
tapers are considered and simulation results are shown using the
accurate time-domain numerical method based on Finite Difference
Time Domain (FDTD) scheme. The suitability of these devices for
novel applications is discussed and evaluated.
Abstract: For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having
scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a
preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from
photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification
the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel
analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical
signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons
in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of
each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel
analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The
exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in
biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid
holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)
Abstract: We report the size dependence of 1D superconductivity in ultrathin (10-130 nm) nanowires produced by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting NbN thin film. The resistance-temperature characteristic curves for samples with ≧25 nm wire width show the superconducting transition. On the other hand, for the samples with 10-nm width, the superconducting transition is not exhibited owing to the quantum size effect. The differential resistance vs. current density characteristic curves show some peak, indicating that Josephson junctions are formed in nanowires. The presence of the Josephson junctions is well explained by the measurement of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current. These understanding allow for the further expansion of the potential application of NbN, which is utilized for single photon detectors and so on.
Abstract: We present a dextran modified silicon microring
resonator sensor for high density antibody immobilization. An array
of sensors consisting of three sensor rings and a reference ring was
fabricated and its surface sensitivity and the limit of detection were
obtained using polyelectrolyte multilayers. The mass sensitivity and
the limit of detection of the fabricated sensor ring are 0.35 nm/ng
mm-2 and 42.8 pg/mm2 in air, respectively. Dextran modified sensor
surface was successfully prepared by covalent grafting of oxidized
dextran on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified silicon
sensor surface. The antibody immobilization on hydrogel dextran
matrix improves 40% compared to traditional antibody
immobilization method via APTES and glutaraldehyde linkage.
Abstract: With the drastically growth in optical communication
technology, a lossless, low-crosstalk and multifunction optical switch
is most desirable for large-scale photonic network. To realize such a
switch, we have introduced the new architecture of optical switch
that embedded many functions on single device. The asymmetrical
architecture of OXADM consists of 3 parts; selective port, add/drop
operation, and path routing. Selective port permits only the interest
wavelength pass through and acts as a filter. While add and drop
function can be implemented in second part of OXADM architecture.
The signals can then be re-routed to any output port or/and perform
an accumulation function which multiplex all signals onto single path
and then exit to any interest output port. This will be done by path
routing operation. The unique features offered by OXADM has
extended its application to Fiber to-the Home Technology (FTTH),
here the OXADM is used as a wavelength management element in
Optical Line Terminal (OLT). Each port is assigned specifically with
the operating wavelengths and with the dynamic routing management
to ensure no traffic combustion occurs in OLT.
Abstract: The overall penumbra is usually defined as the
distance, p20–80, separating the 20% and 80% of the dose on the beam axis at the depth of interest. This overall penumbra accounts
also for the fact that some photons emitted by the distal parts of the source are only partially attenuated by the collimator. Medulloblastoma is the most common type of childhood brain tumor
and often spreads to the spine. Current guidelines call for surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation of the brain and spinal cord, and finally treatment with chemotherapy.
The purpose of this paper was to present results on an Uniformity of dose distribution in radiation fields surrounding the spine using film
dosimetry and comparison with 3D treatment planning software.
Abstract: In this work we study the reflection of circularly
polarised light from a nano-structured biological material found in
the exocuticle of scarabus beetles. This material is made of a stack
of ultra-thin (~5 nm) uniaxial layers arranged in a left-handed
helicoidal stack, which resonantly reflects circularly polarized light.
A chirp in the layer thickness combined with a finite absorption
coefficient produce a broad smooth reflectance spectrum. By
comparing model calculations and electron microscopy with
measured spectra we can explain our observations and quantify most
relevant structural parameters.