Abstract: Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space, which it should pass through, before reaching the lesion. Specially, in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.
Abstract: In this paper, a one - dimensional microstructure tungsten grating (pyramids) is optimized for potential application as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) emitter. The influence of gratings geometric parameters on the spectral emittance are studied by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA).The results show that the spectral emittance is affected by the gratings geometrical parameters. The optimum parameters are grating period of 0.5µm, a filling ratio of 0.8 and grating height of h=0.2µm. A broad peak of high emittance is obtained at wavelengths between 0.5 and 1.8µm. The emittance drops below 0.2 at wavelengths above 1.8µm. This can be explained by the surface plasmon polaritons excitation coupled with the grating microstructures. At longer wavelengths, the emittance remains low and this is highly desired for thermophotovoltaic applications to reduce the thermal leakage due to low-energy photons that do not produce any photocurrent. The proposed structure can be used as a selective emitter for a narrow band gap cell such as GaSb. The performance of this simple 1-D emitter proved to be superior to that from more complicated structures. Almost all the radiation from the emitter incident, at angles up to 40°, on the cell, could be utilized to produce a photocurrent. There is no need for a filter.
Abstract: Two different testicular tissues have to be distinguished in regard to radiation damage: first the seminiferous tubules, corresponding to the sites of spermatogenesis, which are extremely radiosensitive. Second the testosterone secreting Leydig cells, which are considered to be less radiosensitive. This study aims to estimate testicular dose and the associated risks for infertility and hereditary effects from Abdominal and pelvic irradiation. Radiotherapy was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 15 MV photon beam. Testicular dose was measured for various field sizes and tissue thicknesses along beam axis using an ionization chamber and TLD. For transmission Factor Also common method of measuring the absorbed dose distribution and electron contamination in the build-up region of high-energy beams for radiation therapy is by means of parallel-plate Ionisation chambers. Gonadal dose was reduced by placing lead cups around the testes supplemented by a field edge block. For a tumor dose of 100 cGy, testicular dose was 2.96-8.12 cGy depending upon the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. The treatment at parameters, the presence of gonad shield and the somatometric characteristics determine whether testicular dose can exceed 1 Gy which allows a complete recovery of spermatogenesis.
Abstract: Equivalent fields are frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular and irregular shaped photon beam. Since most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field, are dosimetry-based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square for rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables of BJR and Venselaar with the average relative error percentage of 2.5±2.5 % and 1.5±1.5 % respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the PDDs were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies 6 and 18MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.
Abstract: Nowadays, in most radiotherapy departments, the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used to calculate dose distributions needs to be verified; therefore, quick, easy-to-use and low cost dose distribution algorithms are desirable to test and verify the performance of the TPS. In this paper, we put forth an analytical method to calculate the phantom scatter contribution and depth dose on the central axis based on the equivalent square concept. Then, this method was generalized to calculate the profiles at any depth and for several field shapes regular or irregular fields under symmetry and asymmetry photon beam conditions. Varian 2100 C/D and Siemens Primus Plus Linacs with 6 and 18 MV photon beam were used for irradiations. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for a large number of square fields for both energies, and for 45º wedges which were employed to obtain the profiles in any depth. To assess the accuracy of the calculated profiles, several profile measurements were carried out for some treatment fields. The calculated and measured profiles were compared by gamma-index calculation. All γ–index calculations were based on a 3% dose criterion and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement (DTA) acceptance criterion. The γ values were less than 1 at most points. However, the maximum γ observed was about 1.10 in the penumbra region in most fields and in the central area for the asymmetric fields. This analytical approach provides a generally quick and fairly accurate algorithm to calculate dose distribution for some treatment fields in conventional radiotherapy.
Abstract: Silicon photonics has generated an increasing interest in recent years mainly for optical communications optical interconnects in microelectronic circuits or bio-sensing applications. The development of elementary passive and active components (including detectors and modulators), which are mainly fabricated on the silicon on insulator platform for CMOS-compatible fabrication, has reached such a performance level that the integration challenge of silicon photonics with microelectronic circuits should be addressed. Since crystalline silicon can only be grown from another silicon crystal, making it impossible to deposit in this state, the optical devices are typically limited to a single layer. An alternative approach is to integrate a photonic layer above the CMOS chip using back-end CMOS fabrication process. In this paper, various materials, including silicon nitride, amorphous silicon, and polycrystalline silicon, for this purpose are addressed.
Abstract: Silicon photonics is merging as a unified platform for driving photonic based telecommunications and for local photonic based interconnect but it suffers from large footprint as compared with the nanoelectronics. Plasmonics is an attractive alternative for nanophotonics. In this work, two CMOS compatible plasmonic waveguide platforms are compared. One is the horizontal metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide and the other is metal-insulator-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Various passive and active photonic devices have been experimentally demonstrated based on these two plasmonic waveguide platforms.
Abstract: A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) was designed, fabricated and characterized. The SiPM was based on SACM (Separation of Absorption, Charge and Multiplication) structure, which was optimized for blue light detection in application of positron emission tomography (PET). The achieved SiPM array has a high geometric fill factor of 64% and a low breakdown voltage of about 22V, while the temperature dependence of breakdown voltage is only 17mV/°C. The gain and photon detection efficiency of the device achieved were also measured under illumination of light at 405nm and 460nm wavelengths. The gain of the device is in the order of 106. The photon detection efficiency up to 60% has been observed under 1.8V overvoltage.
Abstract: Single photon detectors have been fabricated NbN
nano wire. These detectors are fabricated from high quality, ultra
high vacuum sputtered NbN thin films on a sapphire substrate. In this
work a typical schematic of the nanowire Single Photon Detector
structure and then driving and measurement electronic circuit are
The response of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors
during a photo detection event, is modeled by a special electrical
circuits (two circuit).
Finally, current through the wire is calculated by solving
equations of models.
Abstract: The exact gain shape profile of erbium doped fiber
amplifiers (EDFA`s) are depends on fiber length and Er3 ion
densities. This paper optimized several of erbium doped fiber
parameters to obtain high performance characteristic at pump
wavelengths of λp= 980 nm and λs= 1550 nm for three different
pump powers. The maximum gain obtained for pump powers (10, 30
and 50mw) is nearly (19, 30 and 33 dB) at optimizations. The
required numerical aperture NA to obtain maximum gain becomes
less when pump power increased. The amplifier gain is increase
when Er+3doped near the center of the fiber core. The simulation has
been done by using optisystem 5.0 software (CAD for Photonics, a
license product of a Canadian based company) at 2.5 Gbps.
Abstract: The angular distribution of Compton scattering of two
quanta originating in the annihilation of a positron with an electron
is investigated as a quantum key distribution (QKD) mechanism in
the gamma spectral range. The geometry of coincident Compton
scattering is observed on the two sides as a way to obtain partially
correlated readings on the quantum channel. We derive the noise
probability density function of a conceptually equivalent prepare
and measure quantum channel in order to evaluate the limits of the
concept in terms of the device secrecy capacity and estimate it at
roughly 1.9 bits per 1 000 annihilation events. The high error rate
is well above the tolerable error rates of the common reconciliation
protocols; therefore, the proposed key agreement protocol by public
discussion requires key reconciliation using classical error-correcting
codes. We constructed a prototype device based on the readily
available monolithic detectors in the least complex setup.
Abstract: in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional
photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube
in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output
Abstract: The possibility of intrinsic electromagnetic fields
within living cells and their resonant self-interaction and interaction
with ambient electromagnetic fields is suggested on the basis of a
theoretical and experimental study. It is reported that intrinsic
electromagnetic fields are produced in the form of radio-frequency
and infra-red photons within atoms (which may be coupled or
uncoupled) in cellular structures, such as the cell cytoskeleton and
plasma membrane. A model is presented for the interaction of these
photons among themselves or with atoms under a dipole-dipole
coupling, induced by single-photon or two-photon processes. This
resonance is manifested by conspicuous field amplification and it is
argued that it is possible for these resonant photons to undergo
tunnelling in the form of evanescent waves to a short range (of a few
nanometers to micrometres). This effect, suggested as a resonant
photon tunnelling mechanism in this report, may enable these fields
to act as intracellular signal communication devices and as bridges
between macromolecules or cellular structures in the cell
cytoskeleton, organelles or membrane. A brief overview of an
experimental technique and a review of some preliminary results are
presented, in the detection of these fields produced in living cell
membranes under physiological conditions.
Abstract: In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching
(MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide
discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is
divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided
and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically
by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method
for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the
modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure.
The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to
study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to
fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared
to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint
Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.
Abstract: This paper considers various channels of gammaquantum
generation via an ultra-short high-power laser pulse
interaction with different targets.We analyse the possibilities to create
a pulsed gamma-radiation source using laser triggering of some
nuclear reactions and isomer targets. It is shown that sub-MeV
monochromatic short pulse of gamma-radiation can be obtained with
pulse energy of sub-mJ level from isomer target irradiated by intense
laser pulse. For nuclear reaction channel in light- atom materials, it is
shown that sub-PW laser pulse gives rise to formation about million
gamma-photons of multi-MeV energy.
Abstract: For a determined intermediate band position, the effects of electron filling factor and sunlight concentration on the active region thickness and efficiency of the quantum-dot intermediate band solar cell are calculated. For each value of electron filling factor, the maximum point of efficiency obtained and resulted in the optimum thickness of the cell under three different sunlight concentrations. We show the importance of filling factor as a parameter to be more considered. The photon recycling effect eliminated in all calculations.
Abstract: A simple microstructure optical fiber design based on an octagonal cladding structure is presented for simultaneously controlling dispersion and leakage properties. The finite difference method with anisotropic perfectly matched boundary layer is used to investigate the guiding properties. It is demonstrated that octagonal photonic crystal fibers with four rings can assume negative ultra-flattened dispersion of -19 + 0.23 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1.275 μm to 1.68 μm, nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.40 ps/nm/km in a 1.38 to 1.64 μm, and low confinement losses less than 10-3 dB/km in the entire band of interest.
Abstract: This study aims to analyze the effect of e-learning on
photonics technology and daily livings among college students. The
course contents of photonics technology and daily livings are first
drafted based on research discussions and expert interviews. Having
expert questionnaires with Delphi Technique for three times, the
knowledge units and items for the course of photonics technology and
daily livings are established. The e-learning materials and the drafts of
instructional strategies, academic achievement, and learning attitude
scales are then developed. With expert inspection, reliability and
validity test, and experimental instructions, the scales and the material
are further revised. Finally, the formal instructions are implemented to
test the effect of different instructional methods on the academic
achievement of photonics technology and daily livings among students
in universities of technology. The research results show that e-learning
could effectively promote academic achievement and learning
attitude, and the students with e-learning obviously outperform the
ones with trandition instructions.
Abstract: To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for
clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and
distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured
using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning
system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane
parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4
cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and
a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed
Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked
with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface.
The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with
ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank
system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a
maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment