Abstract: Multifamily residential buildings are increasingly being built with large glazed areas to provide tenants with greater daylight and outdoor views. However, traditional double-glazed window assemblies can lead to significant thermal discomfort from high radiant temperatures as well as increased cooling energy use to address solar gains. Dynamic glazing provides an effective solution by actively controlling solar transmission to maintain indoor thermal comfort, without compromising the visual connection to outdoors. This study uses thermal simulations across three Canadian cities (Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal) to verify if dynamic glazing along with operable windows and ceiling fans can maintain the indoor operative temperature of a prototype southwest facing high-rise apartment unit within the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort range for a majority of the year, without any mechanical cooling. Since this study proposes the use of natural ventilation for cooling and the typical building life cycle is 30-40 years, the typical weather files have been modified based on accepted global warming projections for increased air temperatures by 2050. Results for the prototype apartment confirm that thermal discomfort with dynamic glazing occurs only for less than 0.7% of the year. However, in the baseline scenario with low-E glass there are up to 7% annual hours of discomfort despite natural ventilation with operable windows and improved air movement with ceiling fans.
Abstract: The concern of the indoor air quality (IAQ) has been increasing due to its risk to human health. The smoking, sweeping, and stove and stovetop use are the activities that have a major contribution to the indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution also affects IAQ. The most important factors over IAQ from cooking activities are the materials, fuels, foods, and ventilation. The low-cost, mobile air quality monitoring (LCMAQM) sensors, is reachable technology to assess the IAQ. This is because of the lower cost of LCMAQM compared to conventional instruments. The IAQ was assessed, using LCMAQM, during cooking activities in a University of Minnesota graduate-housing evaluating different ventilation systems. The gases measured are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The particles measured are particle matter (PM) 2.5 micrometer (µm) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA). The measurements are being conducted during April 2019 in Como Student Community Cooperative (CSCC) that is a graduate housing at the University of Minnesota. The measurements are conducted using an electric stove for cooking. The amount and type of food and oil using for cooking are the same for each measurement. There are six measurements: two experiments measure air quality without any ventilation, two using an extractor as mechanical ventilation, and two using the extractor and windows open as mechanical and natural ventilation. 3The results of experiments show that natural ventilation is most efficient system to control particles and CO2. The natural ventilation reduces the concentration in 79% for LDSA and 55% for PM2.5, compared to the no ventilation. In the same way, CO2 reduces its concentration in 35%. A well-mixed vessel model was implemented to assess particle the formation and decay rates. Removal rates by the extractor were significantly higher for LDSA, which is dominated by smaller particles, than for PM2.5, but in both cases much lower compared to the natural ventilation. There was significant day to day variation in particle concentrations under nominally identical conditions. This may be related to the fat content of the food. Further research is needed to assess the impact of the fat in food on particle generations.
Abstract: In India, cooling loads in residential sector is a major contributor to its total energy consumption. Due to the increasing cooling need, the market penetration of air-conditioners is further expected to rise. Natural Ventilation (NV), however, possesses great potential to save significant energy consumption especially for residential buildings in moderate climates. As multifamily residential apartment buildings are designed by repetitive use of prototype designs, deriving individual NV based design prototype solutions for a combination of different wind incidence angles and orientations would provide significant opportunity to address the rise in cooling loads by residential sector. This paper presents the results of NV performance of a selected prototype apartment design with a cluster of four units in Pune, India, and an attempt to improve the NV performance through design modifications. The water table apparatus, a physical modelling tool, is used to study the flow patterns and simulate wind-induced NV performance. Quantification of NV performance is done by post processing images captured from video recordings in terms of percentage of area with good and poor access to ventilation. NV performance of the existing design for eight wind incidence angles showed that of the cluster of four units, the windward units showed good access to ventilation for all rooms, and the leeward units had lower access to ventilation with the bedrooms in the leeward units having the least access. The results showed improved performance in all the units for all wind incidence angles to more than 80% good access to ventilation. Some units showed an additional improvement to more than 90% good access to ventilation. This process of design and performance evaluation improved some individual units from 0% to 100% for good access to ventilation. The results demonstrate the ease of use and the power of the water table apparatus for performance-based design to simulate wind induced NV.
Abstract: The term ‘Windphil Architecture’ refers to the building that facilitates natural ventilation by architectural elements. Natural ventilation uses the natural forces of wind pressure and stacks effect to direct the movement of air through buildings. Natural ventilation is increasingly being used in contemporary buildings to minimize the consumption of non-renewable energy and it is an effective way to improve indoor air quality. The main objective of this paper is to identify the strategies of using natural ventilation in Iranian modern buildings. In this regard, the research method is ‘descriptive-analytical’ that is based on comparative techniques. To simulate wind flow in the interior spaces of case studies, FLUENT software has been used. Research achievements show that it is possible to use natural ventilation to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. The natural ventilation strategies could be classified into two groups of environmental characteristics such as public space structure, and architectural characteristics including building form and orientation, openings, central courtyards, wind catchers, roof, wall wings, semi-open spaces and the heat capacity of materials. Having investigated modern buildings of Iran, innovative elements like wind catchers and wall wings are less used than the traditional architecture. Instead, passive ventilation strategies have been more considered in the building design as for the roof structure and openings.
Abstract: Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 °C and allows the activation of PCM panels.
Abstract: This paper describes in details a commercial green building that has been designed and constructed in Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment has been taken into consideration in the design and construction of this building. The building consists of one floor with 3 m height and 2810 m2 area while the envelope area is 1400 m2. The building construction fulfills the natural ventilation requirements. The glass curtain walls are about 50% of the building and the windows area is 300 m2. 6 mm greenish gray tinted temper glass as outer board lite, 6 mm safety glass as inner board lite and 16 mm thick dehydrated air spaces are used in the building. Visible light with 50% transmission, 0.26 solar factor, 0.67 shading coefficient and 1.3 W/m2.K thermal insulation U-value are implemented to realize the performance requirements. Optimum electrical distribution for lighting system, air conditions and other electrical loads has been carried out. Power and quantity of each type of the lighting system lamps and the energy consumption of the lighting system are investigated. The design of the air conditions system is based on summer and winter outdoor conditions. Ventilated, air conditioned spaces and fresh air rates are determined. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is the air conditioning system used in this building. The VRF outdoor units are located on the roof of the building and connected to indoor units through refrigerant piping. Indoor units are distributed in all building zones through ducts and air outlets to ensure efficient air distribution. The green building energy consumption is evaluated monthly all over one year and compared with the consumed energy in the non-green conditions using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) model. The comparison results show that the total energy consumed per year in the green building is about 1,103,221 kWh while the non-green energy consumption is about 1,692,057 kWh. In other words, the green building total annual energy cost is reduced from 136,581 $ to 89,051 $. This means that, the energy saving and consequently the money-saving of this green construction is about 35%. In addition, 13 points are awarded by applying one of the most popular worldwide green energy certification programs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design “LEED”) as a rating system for the green construction. It is concluded that this green building ensures sustainability, saves energy and offers an optimum energy performance with minimum cost.
Abstract: Increasing urbanisation has driven building designers to incorporate natural ventilation in the designs of sustainable buildings. This project utilises Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate the natural ventilation of an academic building, [email protected], using an assessment criterion based on daily mean temperature and mean velocity. The areas of interest are the pedestrian level of first and fourth levels of the building. A reference case recommended by the Architectural Institute of Japan was used to validate the simulation model. The validated simulation model was then used for coupled simulations on [email protected] and neighbouring geometries, under two wind speeds. Both steady and transient simulations were used to identify differences in results. Steady and transient results are agreeable with the transient simulation identifying peak velocities during flow development. Under a lower wind speed, the first level was sufficiently ventilated while the fourth level was not. The first level has excessive wind velocities in the higher wind speed and the fourth level was adequately ventilated. Fourth level flow velocity was consistently lower than those of the first level. This is attributed to either simulation model error or poor building design. [email protected] is concluded to have a sufficiently ventilated first level and insufficiently ventilated fourth level. Future works for this project extend to modifying the urban geometry, simulation model improvements, evaluation using other assessment metrics and extending the area of interest to the entire building.
Abstract: Result from the constant dwindle in natural resources,
the alternative way to reduce the costs in our daily life would be urgent
to be found in the near future. As the ancient technique based on the
theory of solar chimney since roman times, the double-skin façade are
simply composed of two large glass panels in purpose of daylighting
and also natural ventilation in the daytime. Double-skin façade is
generally installed on the exterior side of buildings as function as the
window, so there is always a huge amount of passive solar energy the
façade would receive to induce the airflow every sunny day. Therefore,
this article imposes a domestic double-skin window for residential
usage and attempts to improve the volume flow rate inside the cavity
between the panels by the frame geometry design, the installation of
outlet guide plate and the solar energy collection system. Note that the
numerical analyses are applied to investigate the characteristics of flow
field, and the boundary conditions in the simulation are totally based
on the practical experiment of the original prototype. Then we
redesign the prototype from the knowledge of the numerical results
and fluid dynamic theory, and later the experiments of modified
prototype will be conducted to verify the simulation results. The
velocities at the inlet of each case are increase by 5%, 45% and 15%
from the experimental data, and also the numerical simulation results
reported 20% improvement in volume flow rate both for the frame
geometry design and installation of outlet guide plate.
Abstract: This research presents the design and analysis of solar
air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a
passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the
structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic
(CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which
have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order
to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient
sub-system components are considered for the design. The general
purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar
chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of
such systems for integration with existing and future domestic
Abstract: In this paper, the influence of upstream structures on the flow patternaround and inside the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation is dependent on the presence of upstream structures. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns around and inside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream structure reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.
Abstract: Sustainable tall buildings that provide comfortable,
healthy and efficient indoor environments are clearly desirable as the
densification of living and working space for the world’s increasing
population proceeds. For environmental concerns, these buildings
must also be energy efficient. One component of these tasks is the
provision of indoor air quality and thermal comfort, which can be
enhanced with natural ventilation by the supply of fresh air. Working
spaces can only be naturally ventilated with connections to the
outdoors utilizing operable windows, double facades, ventilation
stacks, balconies, patios, terraces and skygardens. Large amounts of
fresh air can be provided to the indoor spaces without mechanical
air-conditioning systems, which are widely employed in
contemporary tall buildings.
This paper tends to present the concept of natural ventilation for
sustainable tall office buildings in order to achieve healthy and
comfortable working spaces, as well as energy efficient
environments. Initially the historical evolution of ventilation
strategies for tall buildings is presented, beginning with natural
ventilation and continuing with the introduction of mechanical airconditioning
systems. Then the emergence of natural ventilation due
to the health and environmental concerns in tall buildings is handled,
and the strategies for implementing this strategy are revealed. In the
next section, a number of case studies that utilize this strategy are
investigated. Finally, how tall office buildings can benefit from this
strategy is discussed.
Abstract: Climate considerations are essential dimensions in the assessment of thermal comfort and indoor environments inside Egyptian housing. The primary aim of this paper is to analyze the indoor environment of new housing in the new city of Assiut in the Southern Upper Egypt zone, in order to evaluate its thermal environment and determine the acceptable indoor operative temperatures. The psychrometric charts for ASHRAE Standard 55 and ACS used in this study would facilitate an overall representation of the climate in one of the hottest months in the summer season. This study helps to understand and deal with this problem and work on a passive cooling ventilation strategy in these contexts in future studies. The results that demonstrated the indoor temperature is too high, ranges between 31°C to 40°C in different natural ventilation strategies. This causes the indoor environment to be far from the optimum comfort operative temperature of ACS except when using air conditioners. Finally, this study is considered a base for developing a new system using natural ventilation with passive cooling strategies.
Abstract: This study examines the stack ventilation performance of an office building located in Taipei, Taiwan. Atriums in this building act as stacks that facilitate buoyancy-driven ventilation. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to identify interior airflow patterns, and then used these patterns to assess the building’s heat expulsion efficiency. Ambient temperatures of 20°C were adopted as the typical seasonal spring temperature range in Taipei. Further, “zero-wind” conditions are established to ensure simulation results reflected only the buoyancy effect. After checking results against neutral pressure level (NPL) level, airflow, air velocity, and indoor temperature stratification, the lower stack is modified to reduce the NPL in order to remove heat accumulated on the top floor.
Abstract: The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed
roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces
during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed
and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to
adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded
by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field
studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain'
houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010.
Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to
floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested
at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months.
Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships
between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain'
house to improve the future house design for building thermal
comfort and energy efficiency
Abstract: wind catchers have been served as a cooling system, used to provide acceptable ventilation by means of renewable energy of wind. In the present study, the city of Yazd in arid climate is selected as case study. From the architecture point of view, learning about wind catchers in this study is done by means of field surveys. Research method for selection of the case is based on random form, and analytical method. Wind catcher typology and knowledge of relationship governing the wind catcher's architecture were those measures that are taken for the first time. 53 wind catchers were analyzed. The typology of the wind-catchers is done by the physical analyzing, patterns and common concepts as incorporated in them. How the architecture of wind catcher can influence their operations by analyzing thermal behavior are the archetypes of selected wind catchers. Calculating fluids dynamics science, fluent software and numerical analysis are used in this study as the most accurate analytical approach. The results obtained from these analyses show the formal specifications of wind catchers with optimum operation in Yazd. The knowledge obtained from the optimum model could be used for design and construction of wind catchers with more improved operation
Abstract: Ventilation is a fundamental requirement for
occupant health and indoor air quality in buildings. Natural
ventilation can be used as a design strategy in free-running
• Renew indoor air with fresh outside air and lower room
temperatures at times when the outdoor air is cooler.
• Promote air flow to cool down the building structure
• Promote occupant physiological cooling processes
This paper focuses on ways in which ventilation can
provide the mechanism for heat dissipation and cooling of the
building structure..It also discusses use of ventilation as a
means of increasing air movement to improve comfort when
indoor air temperatures are too high. The main influencing
factors and design considerations and quantitative guidelines
to help meet the design objectives are also discussed.
Abstract: The use of solar control film on windows as one of
solar passive strategies for building have becoming important and is
gaining recognition. Malaysia located close to equator is having
warm humid climate with long sunshine hours and abundant solar
radiation throughout the year. Hence, befitting solar control on
windows is absolutely necessary to capture the daylight whilst
moderating thermal impact and eliminating glare problems. This is
one of the energy efficient strategies to achieve thermal and visual
comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study was carried out to
investigate the effect of window solar controls on thermal and visual
performance of naturally ventilated buildings. This was conducted via
field data monitoring using a test building facility. Four types of
window glazing systems were used with three types of solar control
films. Data were analysed for thermal and visual impact with
reference to thermal and optical characteristics of the films. Results
show that for each glazing system, the surface temperature of
windows are influenced by the Solar Energy Absorption property, the
indoor air temperature are influenced by the Solar Energy
Transmittance and Solar Energy Reflectance, and the daylighting by
Visible Light Transmission and Shading Coefficient. Further
investigations are underway to determine the mathematical relation
between thermal energy and visual performance with the thermal and
optical characteristics of solar control films.
Abstract: Wind catchers are traditional natural ventilation
systems attached to buildings in order to ventilate the indoor air. The
most common type of wind catcher is four sided one which is
capable to catch wind in all directions. CFD simulation is the perfect
way to evaluate the wind catcher performance. The accuracy of CFD
results is the issue of concern, so sensitivity analyses is crucial to
find out the effect of different settings of CFD on results. This paper
presents a series of 3D steady RANS simulations for a generic
isolated four-sided wind catcher attached to a room subjected to wind
direction ranging from 0º to 180º with an interval of 45º. The CFD
simulations are validated with detailed wind tunnel experiments. The
influence of an extensive range of computational parameters is
explored in this paper, including the resolution of the computational
grid, the size of the computational domain and the turbulence model.
This study found that CFD simulation is a reliable method for wind
catcher study, but it is less accurate in prediction of models with non
perpendicular wind directions.
Abstract: Appropriate ventilation in a classroom is helpful for
enhancing air exchange rate and student concentration. This study
focuses on the effects of fenestration in a four-story school building by
performing numerical simulation of a building when considering
indoor and outdoor environments simultaneously. The wind profile
function embedded in PHOENICS code was set as the inlet boundary
condition in a suburban environment. Sixteen fenestration
combinations were compared in a classroom containing thirty seats.
This study evaluates mean age of air (AGE) and airflow pattern of a
classroom on different floors. Considering both wind profile and
fenestration effects, the airflow on higher floors is channeled toward
the area near ceiling in a room and causes older mean age of air in the
breathing zone. The results in this study serve as a useful guide for
enhancing natural ventilation in a typical school building.
Abstract: Growing world population has fundamental impacts
and often catastrophic on natural habitat. The immethodical
consumption of energy, destruction of the forests and extinction of
plant and animal species are the consequence of this experience.
Urban sustainability and sustainable urban development, that is so
spoken these days, should be considered as a strategy, goal and
policy, beyond just considering environmental issues and protection.
The desert-s climate has made a bunch of problems for its residents.
Very hot and dry climate in summers of the Iranian desert areas,
when there was no access to modern energy source and mechanical
cooling systems in the past, made Iranian architects to design a
natural ventilation system in their buildings. The structure, like a
tower going upward the roof, besides its ornamental application and
giving a beautiful view to the building, was used as a spontaneous
ventilation system. In this paper, it has been tried to name the
problems of the area and it-s inconvenience, then some answers has
pointed out in order to solve the problems and as an alternative
solution BADGIR (wind-catcher) has been introduced as a solution
knowing that it has been playing a major role in dealing with the