Abstract: The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.
Abstract: Electric Vehicles (EV) appear to be gaining increasing patronage as a feasible alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) for having low emission and high operation efficiency. The EV energy storage systems are required to handle high energy and power density capacity constrained by limited space, operating temperature, weight and cost. The choice of strategies for energy storage evaluation, monitoring and control remains a challenging task. This paper presents review of various energy storage technologies and recent researches in battery evaluation techniques used in EV applications. It also underscores strategies for the hybrid energy storage management and control schemes for the improvement of EV stability and reliability. The study reveals that despite the advances recorded in battery technologies there is still no cell which possess both the optimum power and energy densities among other requirements, for EV application. However combination of two or more energy storages as hybrid and allowing the advantageous attributes from each device to be utilized is a promising solution. The review also reveals that State-of-Charge (SoC) is the most crucial method for battery estimation. The conventional method of SoC measurement is however questioned in the literature and adaptive algorithms that include all model of disturbances are being proposed. The review further suggests that heuristic-based approach is commonly adopted in the development of strategies for hybrid energy storage system management. The alternative approach which is optimization-based is found to be more accurate but is memory and computational intensive and as such not recommended in most real-time applications.
Abstract: Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.
Abstract: Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.
Abstract: This paper presents a linear oscillating generator of cylindrical type for hybrid electric vehicle application. The focus of the study is the suggestion of the optimal model and the design rule of the cylindrical linear oscillating generator with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator. The cylindrical topology is achieved using equivalent magnetic circuit considering leakage elements as initial modeling. This topology with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator is described by number of phases and displacement of stroke. For more accurate analysis of an oscillating machine, it will be compared by moving just one-pole pitch forward and backward the thrust of single-phase system and three-phase system. Through the analysis and comparison, a single-phase system of cylindrical topology as the optimal topology is selected. Finally, the detailed design of the optimal topology takes the magnetic saturation effects into account by finite element analysis. Besides, the losses are examined to obtain more accurate results; copper loss in the conductors of machine windings, eddy-current loss of permanent magnet, and iron-loss of specific material of electrical steel. The considerations of thermal performances and mechanical robustness are essential, because they have an effect on the entire efficiency and the insulations of the machine due to the losses of the high temperature generated in each region of the generator. Besides electric machine with linear oscillating movement requires a support system that can resist dynamic forces and mechanical masses. As a result, the fatigue analysis of shaft is achieved by the kinetic equations. Also, the thermal characteristics are analyzed by the operating frequency in each region. The results of this study will give a very important design rule in the design of linear oscillating machines. It enables us to more accurate machine design and more accurate prediction of machine performances.
Abstract: This paper describes a strategy to develop an energy
management system (EMS) for a charge-sustaining power-split hybrid
electric vehicle. This kind of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) benefit
from the advantages of both parallel and series architecture. However,
it gets relatively more complicated to manage power flow between the
battery and the engine optimally. The applied strategy in this paper is
based on nonlinear model predictive control approach. First of all, an
appropriate control-oriented model which was accurate enough and
simple was derived. Towards utilization of this controller in real-time,
the problem was solved off-line for a vast area of reference signals
and initial conditions and stored the computed manipulated variables
inside look-up tables. Look-up tables take a little amount of memory.
Also, the computational load dramatically decreased, because to find
required manipulated variables the controller just needed a simple
interpolation between tables.
Abstract: On account of the concern of the fossil fuel is
depleting and its negative effects on the environment, interest in
alternative energy sources is increasing day by day. However,
considering the importance of transportation in human life, instead of
oil and its derivatives fueled vehicles with internal combustion
engines, electric vehicles which are sensitive to the environment and
working with electrical energy has begun to develop. In this study,
simulation was carried out for providing energy management and
recovering regenerative braking in fuel cell-battery hybrid electric
vehicle. The main power supply of the vehicle is fuel cell on the other
hand not only instantaneous power is supplied by the battery but also
the energy generated due to regenerative breaking is stored in the
battery. Obtained results of the simulation is analyzed and discussed.
Abstract: To tackle the air pollution issues, Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are proposed as an appropriate solution.
Charging a large amount of PHEV batteries, if not controlled, would
have negative impacts on the distribution system. The control process
of charging of these vehicles can be centralized in parking lots that
may provide a chance for better coordination than the individual
charging in houses. In this paper, an optimization-based approach is
proposed to determine the optimum PHEV parking capacities in
candidate nodes of the distribution system. In so doing, a profile for
charging and discharging of PHEVs is developed in order to flatten
the network load profile. Then, this profile is used in solving an
optimization problem to minimize the distribution system losses. The
outputs of the proposed method are the proper place for PHEV
parking lots and optimum capacity for each parking. The application
of the proposed method on the IEEE-34 node test feeder verifies the
effectiveness of the method.
Abstract: Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and
improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine
(ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an
electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate
independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can
operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in
input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed
gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because
it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This
research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the
two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an
internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines
(EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These
control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE
efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy
storage system in an efficient range.
Abstract: This paper presents a method for the efficient
implementation of a unidirectional or bidirectional DC/DC converter.
The DC/DC converter is used essentially for energy exchange
between the low voltage service battery and a high voltage battery
commonly found in Electric Vehicle applications. In these
applications, apart from cost, efficiency of design is an important
characteristic. A useful way to reduce the size of electronic
equipment in the electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. The
technique simplifies the mechanical complexity and maximizes the
energy usage using the latest converter control techniques. Moreover
a bidirectional battery charger for hybrid electric vehicles is also
implemented in this paper. Several simulations on the test system
have been carried out in Matlab/Simulink environment. The results
exemplify the robustness of the proposed design methodology in case
of a 1.5 KW DC-DC converter.
Abstract: Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. ThereforeRFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25cm2 and 100cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.
Abstract: Nowadays the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing dramatically. The HEV is mainly dependent on electricity and there is always a need for storage of charge. Fuel Cell (FC), Batteries and Ultra Capacitor are being used for the proposed HEV as an electric power source or as an energy storage unit. The aim of developing an energy management technique is to utilize the sources according to the requirement of the vehicle with help of controller. This increases the efficiency of hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the fuel consumption and unwanted emission. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in FC is done using (Perturb & Observe) algorithm. In this paper, the control of automobiles at variable speed is achieved effectively.
Abstract: In recent years fuel cell vehicles are rapidly appearing
all over the globe. In less than 10 years, fuel cell vehicles have gone
from mere research novelties to operating prototypes and demonstration
models. At the same time, government and industry in development
countries have teamed up to invest billions of dollars in partnerships
intended to commercialize fuel cell vehicles within the early
years of the 21st century.
The purpose of this study is evaluation of model and performance
of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle in different drive cycles. A fuel
cell system model developed in this work is a semi-experimental
model that allows users to use the theory and experimental relationships
in a fuel cell system. The model can be used as part of a complex
fuel cell vehicle model in advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR).
This work reveals that the fuel consumption and energy efficiency
vary in different drive cycles. Arising acceleration and speed in a
drive cycle leads to Fuel consumption increase. In addition, energy
losses in drive cycle relates to fuel cell system power request. Parasitic
power in different parts of fuel cell system will increase when
power request increases. Finally, most of energy losses in drive cycle
occur in fuel cell system because of producing a lot of energy by fuel
Abstract: Fault detection determines faultexistence and detecting
time. This paper discusses two layered fault detection methods to
enhance the reliability and safety. Two layered fault detection methods
consist of fault detection methods of component level controllers and
system level controllers. Component level controllers detect faults by
using limit checking, model-based detection, and data-driven
detection and system level controllers execute detection by stability
analysis which can detect unknown changes. System level controllers
compare detection results via stability with fault signals from lower
level controllers. This paper addresses fault detection methods via
stability and suggests fault detection criteria in nonlinear systems. The
fault detection method applies tothe hybrid control unit of a military
hybrid electric vehicleso that the hybrid control unit can detect faults
of the traction motor.
Abstract: With a development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV),
A photovoltaic(PV) generation system is used for charging batteries in many cases. A dc/dc converter using PV power for a battery charger
requires a high efficiency. In this paper, A ZVS boost converter using the renewable energies for HEV charger is proposed. Through the theoretical analysis and experimental result, operation modes and characteristics of the proposed topology are verified.
Abstract: Due to heightened concerns over environmental and economic issues the growing important of air pollution, and the importance of conserving fossil fuel resources in the world, the automotive industry is now forced to produce more fuel efficient, low emission vehicles and new drive system technologies. One of the most promising technologies to receive attention is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which consists of two or more energy sources that supply energy to electric traction motors that in turn drive the wheels. This paper presents the various structures of HEV systems, the basic theoretical knowledge for describing their operation and the general behaviour of the HEV in acceleration, cruise and deceleration phases. The conventional design and sizing of a series HEV is studied. A conventional bus and its series configuration are defined and evaluated using the ADVISOR. In this section the simulation of a standard driving cycle and prediction of its fuel consumption and emissions of the HEV are discussed. Finally the bus performance is investigated to establish whether it can satisfy the performance, fuel consumption and emissions requested. The validity of the simulation has been established by the close conformity between the fuel consumption of the conventional bus reported by the manufacturer to what has achieved from the simulation.
Abstract: Permanent magnet synchronous machines are known
as a good candidate for hybrid electric vehicles due to their unique
merits. However they have two major drawbacks i.e. high cost and
small speed range. In this paper an optimal design of a permanent
magnet machine is presented. A reduction of permanent magnet
material for a constant torque and an extension in speed and torque
ranges are chosen as the optimization aims. For this purpose the
analytical model of the permanent magnet synchronous machine is
derived and the appropriate design algorithm is devised. The genetic
algorithm is then employed to optimize some machine specifications.
Finally the finite element method is used to validate the designed