Abstract: Technological innovations in electronic world demand novel, compact, simple in design, less costly and effective heat transfer devices. Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP) is a passive phase change heat transfer device and has potential to transfer heat quickly and efficiently from source to sink. Thermal performance of a CLPHP is governed by various parameters such as number of U-turns, orientations, input heat, working fluids and filling ratio. The present paper is an attempt to predict the thermal performance of a CLPHP using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Filling ratio and heat input are considered as input parameters while thermal resistance is set as target parameter. Types of neural networks considered in the present paper are radial basis, generalized regression, linear layer, cascade forward back propagation, feed forward back propagation; feed forward distributed time delay, layer recurrent and Elman back propagation. Linear, logistic sigmoid, tangent sigmoid and Radial Basis Gaussian Function are used as transfer functions. Prediction accuracy is measured based on the experimental data reported by the researchers in open literature as a function of Mean Absolute Relative Deviation (MARD). The prediction of a generalized regression ANN model with spread constant of 4.8 is found in agreement with the experimental data for MARD in the range of ±1.81%.
Abstract: This paper presents two techniques, local feature
extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum
modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical
information to improve the performance of face recognition
system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub
block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this
block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using
DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high
frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the
spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non-
Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several
Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best
feature representation can be modelled using probability density
function. The recognition process is performed using maximum
likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components.
The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved
92% recognition rates.
Abstract: Due to the fact that there exist only a small number of complex systems in artificial immune system (AIS) that work out nonlinear problems, nonlinear AIS approaches, among the well-known solution techniques, need to be developed. Gaussian function is usually used as similarity estimation in classification problems and pattern recognition. In this study, diagnosis of breast cancer, the second type of the most widespread cancer in women, was performed with different distance calculation functions that euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean hybrid function in the clonal selection model of classical AIS on Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD), which was taken from the University of California, Irvine Machine-Learning Repository. We used 3-fold cross validation method to train and test the dataset. According to the results, the maximum test classification accuracy was reported as 97.35% by using of gaussian-euclidean hybrid function for fold-3. Also, mean of test classification accuracies for all of functions were obtained as 94.78%, 94.45% and 95.31% with use of euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean, respectively. With these results, gaussian-euclidean hybrid function seems to be a potential distance calculation method, and it may be considered as an alternative distance calculation method for hard nonlinear classification problems.
Abstract: This paper presents a weighted approach to unconstrained iris recognition. In nowadays, commercial systems are usually characterized by strong acquisition constraints based on the subject’s cooperation. However, it is not always achievable for real scenarios in our daily life. Researchers have been focused on reducing these constraints and maintaining the performance of the system by new techniques at the same time. With large variation in the environment, there are two main improvements to develop the proposed iris recognition system. For solving extremely uneven lighting condition, statistic based illumination normalization is first used on eye region to increase the accuracy of iris feature. The detection of the iris image is based on Adaboost algorithm. Secondly, the weighted approach is designed by Gaussian functions according to the distance to the center of the iris. Furthermore, local binary pattern (LBP) histogram is then applied to texture classification with the weight. Experiment showed that the proposed system provided users a more flexible and feasible way to interact with the verification system through iris recognition.
Abstract: The selection for plantation of a particular type of
mustard plant depending on its productivity (pod yield) at the stage
of maturity. The growth of mustard plant dependent on some
parameters of that plant, these are shoot length, number of leaves,
number of roots and roots length etc. As the plant is growing, some
leaves may be fall down and some new leaves may come, so it can
not gives the idea to develop the relationship with the seeds weight at
mature stage of that plant. It is not possible to find the number of
roots and root length of mustard plant at growing stage that will be
harmful of this plant as roots goes deeper to deeper inside the land.
Only the value of shoot length which increases in course of time can
be measured at different time instances. Weather parameters are
maximum and minimum humidity, rain fall, maximum and minimum
temperature may effect the growth of the plant. The parameters of
pollution, water, soil, distance and crop management may be
dominant factors of growth of plant and its productivity. Considering
all parameters, the growth of the plant is very uncertain, fuzzy
environment can be considered for the prediction of shoot length at
maturity of the plant. Fuzzification plays a greater role for
fuzzification of data, which is based on certain membership
functions. Here an effort has been made to fuzzify the original data
based on gaussian function, triangular function, s-function,
Trapezoidal and L –function. After that all fuzzified data are
defuzzified to get normal form. Finally the error analysis
(calculation of forecasting error and average error) indicates the
membership function appropriate for fuzzification of data and use to
predict the shoot length at maturity. The result is also verified using
residual (Absolute Residual, Maximum of Absolute Residual, Mean
Absolute Residual, Mean of Mean Absolute Residual, Median of
Absolute Residual and Standard Deviation) analysis.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of source separation
in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified
Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation.
Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian
FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain
better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been
made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to
noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are
used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric
Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.
Abstract: Fractional Fourier Transform, which is a
generalization of the classical Fourier Transform, is a powerful tool
for the analysis of transient signals. The discrete Fractional Fourier
Transform Hamiltonians have been proposed in the past with varying
degrees of correlation between their eigenvectors and Hermite
Gaussian functions. In this paper, we propose a new Hamiltonian for
the discrete Fractional Fourier Transform and show that the
eigenvectors of the proposed matrix has a higher degree of
correlation with the Hermite Gaussian functions. Also, the proposed
matrix is shown to give better Fractional Fourier responses with
various transform orders for different signals.
Abstract: Levenberg-Marquardt method (LM) was proposed to
be applied as a non-linear least-square fitting in the analysis of a
natural gamma-ray spectrum that was taken by the Hp (Ge) detector.
The Gaussian function that composed of three components, main
Gaussian, a step background function and tailing function in the lowenergy
side, has been suggested to describe each of the y-ray lines
mathematically in the spectrum. The whole spectrum has been
analyzed by determining the energy and relative intensity for the
strong y-ray lines.
Abstract: In this paper, we have combined some spatial derivatives with the optimised time derivative proposed by Tam and Webb in order to approximate the linear advection equation which is given by = 0. Ôêé Ôêé + Ôêé Ôêé x f t u These spatial derivatives are as follows: a standard 7-point 6 th -order central difference scheme (ST7), a standard 9-point 8 th -order central difference scheme (ST9) and optimised schemes designed by Tam and Webb, Lockard et al., Zingg et al., Zhuang and Chen, Bogey and Bailly. Thus, these seven different spatial derivatives have been coupled with the optimised time derivative to obtain seven different finite-difference schemes to approximate the linear advection equation. We have analysed the variation of the modified wavenumber and group velocity, both with respect to the exact wavenumber for each spatial derivative. The problems considered are the 1-D propagation of a Boxcar function, propagation of an initial disturbance consisting of a sine and Gaussian function and the propagation of a Gaussian profile. It is known that the choice of the cfl number affects the quality of results in terms of dissipation and dispersion characteristics. Based on the numerical experiments solved and numerical methods used to approximate the linear advection equation, it is observed in this work, that the quality of results is dependent on the choice of the cfl number, even for optimised numerical methods. The errors from the numerical results have been quantified into dispersion and dissipation using a technique devised by Takacs. Also, the quantity, Exponential Error for Low Dispersion and Low Dissipation, eeldld has been computed from the numerical results. Moreover, based on this work, it has been found that when the quantity, eeldld can be used as a measure of the total error. In particular, the total error is a minimum when the eeldld is a minimum.