Abstract: The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.
Abstract: Evolution of one-dimensional electron system under
high-energy-density (HED) conditions is investigated, using the
principle of least-action and variational method. In a single-mode
modulation model, the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the
modulation are chosen to be general coordinates. Equations of motion
are derived by considering energy conservation and force balance.
Numerical results show that under HED conditions, electron density
modulation could exist. Time dependences of amplitude and
wavelength are both positively related to the rate of energy input.
Besides, initial loading speed has a significant effect on modulation
amplitude, while wavelength relies more on loading duration.
Abstract: Carrier mobility has become the most important
characteristic of high speed low dimensional devices. Due to
development of very fast switching semiconductor devices, speed of
computer and communication equipment has been increasing day by
day and will continue to do so in future. As the response of any
device depends on the carrier motion within the devices, extensive
studies of carrier mobility in the devices has been established
essential for the growth in the field of low dimensional devices.
Small-signal ac transport of degenerate two-dimensional hot
electrons in GaAs quantum wells is studied here incorporating
deformation potential acoustic, polar optic and ionized impurity
scattering in the framework of heated drifted Fermi-Dirac carrier
distribution. Delta doping is considered in the calculations to
investigate the effects of double delta doping on millimeter and submillimeter
wave response of two dimensional hot electrons in GaAs
nanostructures. The inclusion of delta doping is found to enhance
considerably the two dimensional electron density which in turn
improves the carrier mobility (both ac and dc) values in the GaAs
quantum wells thereby providing scope of getting higher speed
devices in future.
Abstract: The charge-exchange xenon (CEX) ion generated by ion thruster can backflow to the surface of spacecraft and threaten to the safety of spacecraft operation. In order to evaluate the effects of the induced plasma environment in backflow regions on the spacecraft, we designed a spherical single Langmuir probe of 5.8cm in diameter for measuring low-density plasma parameters in backflow region of ion thruster. In practice, the tests are performed in a two-dimensional array (40cm×60cm) composed of 20 sites. The experiment results illustrate that the electron temperature ranges from 3.71eV to 3.96eV, with the mean value of 3.82eV and the standard deviation of 0.064eV. The electron density ranges from 8.30×1012/m3 to 1.66×1013/m3, with the mean value of 1.30×1013/m3 and the standard deviation of 2.15×1012/m3. All data is analyzed according to the “ideal" plasma conditions of Maxwellian distributions.