Abstract: This paper focuses on operational risk measurement
techniques and on economic capital estimation methods. A data
sample of operational losses provided by an anonymous Central
European bank is analyzed using several approaches. Loss
Distribution Approach and scenario analysis method are considered.
Custom plausible loss events defined in a particular scenario are
merged with the original data sample and their impact on capital
estimates and on the financial institution is evaluated. Two main
questions are assessed – What is the most appropriate statistical
method to measure and model operational loss data distribution? and
What is the impact of hypothetical plausible events on the financial
institution? The g&h distribution was evaluated to be the most
suitable one for operational risk modeling. The method based on the
combination of historical loss events modeling and scenario analysis
provides reasonable capital estimates and allows for the measurement
of the impact of extreme events on banking operations.
Abstract: There are three main ways of categorizing capital in banking operations: accounting, regulatory and economic capital. However, the 2008-2009 global crisis has shown that none of these categories adequately reflects the real risks of bank operations, especially in light of the failures Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers or Northern Rock. This paper deals with the economic capital allocation of global banks. In theory, economic capital should reflect the real risks of a bank and should be publicly available. Yet, as discovered during the global financial crisis, even when economic capital information was publicly disclosed, the underlying assumptions rendered the information useless. Specifically, some global banks that reported relatively high levels of economic capital before the crisis went bankrupt or had to be bailed-out by their government. And, only 15 out of 50 global banks reported their economic capital during the 2007-2010 period. In this paper, we analyze the changes in reported bank economic capital disclosure during this period. We conclude that relative shares of credit and business risks increased in 2010 compared to 2007, while both operational and market risks decreased their shares on the total economic capital of top-rated global banks. Generally speaking, higher levels of disclosure and transparency of bank operations are required to obtain more confidence from stakeholders. Moreover, additional risks such as liquidity risks should be included in these disclosures.
Abstract: Operational risk has become one of the most discussed topics in the financial industry in the recent years. The reasons for this attention can be attributed to higher investments in information systems and technology, the increasing wave of mergers and acquisitions and emergence of new financial instruments. In addition, the New Basel Capital Accord (known as Basel II) demands a capital requirement for operational risk and further motivates financial institutions to more precisely measure and manage this type of risk. The aim of this paper is to shed light on main characteristics of operational risk management and common applied methods: scenario analysis, key risk indicators, risk control self assessment and loss distribution approach.