Impact of Gate Insulation Material and Thickness on Pocket Implanted MOS Device

This paper reports on the impact study with the variation of the gate insulation material and thickness on different models of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOS device. The gate materials used here are silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5), silicon nitride (Si3N4), alumina (Al2O3), hafnium silicate (HfSiO4), tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), hafnium dioxide (HfO2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) upon a p-type silicon substrate material. The gate insulation thickness was varied from 2.0 nm to 3.5 nm for a 50 nm channel length pocket implanted n-MOSFET. There are several models available for this device. We have studied and simulated threshold voltage model incorporating drain and substrate bias effects, surface potential, inversion layer charge, pinch-off voltage, effective electric field, inversion layer mobility, and subthreshold drain current models based on two linear symmetric pocket doping profiles. We have changed the values of the two parameters, viz. gate insulation material and thickness gradually fixing the other parameter at their typical values. Then we compared and analyzed the simulation results. This study would be helpful for the nano-scaled MOS device designers for various applications to predict the device behavior.

Ethical Aspects of the Anti-Doping System Management in Poland and in Global Framework

This study is trying to analyse the organization of the anti-doping system globally (particularly in Poland). The analysis is going to show the concept of doping, indicating the types of doping, and list of banned substances and methods. The paper discusses ethical aspects of the global anti-doping system. The analysis is focusing on organization of global Anti-Doping Agency. The paper will try to describe the basic assumptions of regulations adopted by WADA, called "standards” as well organization and functioning of the Polish Anti-Doping Agency (including the legal basis: POLADA). The base for this discuss will be the Polish 2018 annual report, which shows the most important assumptions, implementation and the number of anti-doping proceedings conducted in Poland. The aim of this paper is to show ethical arguments on anti-doping management strategies.

Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Influence of Sr(BO2)2 Doping on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 Phase

Chemical doping with different elements and compounds at various amounts represents the most suitable approach to improve the superconducting properties of bismuth-based superconductors for technological applications. In this paper, the influence of partial substitution of Sr(BO2)2 for SrO on the phase formation kinetics and transport properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS has been studied for the first time. Samples with nominal composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2-xCa2Cu3Oy[Sr(BO2)2]x, x=0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.25, were prepared by the standard solid state processing. The appropriate mixtures were calcined at 845 oC for 40 h. The resulting materials were pressed into pellets and annealed at 837 oC for 30 h in air. Superconducting properties of undoped (reference) and Sr(BO2)2-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 compounds were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity (ρ) and transport critical current density (Jc) measurements. The surface morphology changes in the prepared samples were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and Jc studies have shown that the low level Sr(BO2)2 doping (x=0.0375-0.075) to the Sr-site promotes the formation of high-Tc phase and leads to the enhancement of current carrying capacity in (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS. The doped sample with x=0.0375 has the best performance compared to other prepared samples. The estimated volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase increases from ~25 % for reference specimen to ~70 % for x=0.0375. Moreover, strong increase in the self-field Jc value was observed for this dopant amount (Jc=340 A/cm2), compared to an undoped sample (Jc=110 A/cm2). Pronounced enhancement of superconducting properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor can be attributed to the acceleration of high-Tc phase formation as well as the improvement of inter-grain connectivity by small amounts of Sr(BO2)2 dopant.

Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Preparation of Fe, Cr Codoped TiO2 Nanostructure for Phenol Removal from Wastewaters

Phenol is a hazardous material found in many industrial wastewaters. Photocatalytic degradation and furthermore catalyst doping are promising techniques in purpose of effective phenol removal, which have been studied comprehensively in this decade. In this study, Fe, Cr codoped TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method, and its photocatalytic activity was investigated through degradation of phenol under visible light. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, BET, and EDX. The results showed that nanoparticles possess anatase phase, and the average size of nanoparticles was about 21 nm. Also, photocatalyst has significant surface area. Effect of experimental parameters such as pH, irradiation time, pollutant concentration, and catalyst concentration were investigated by using Design-Expert® software. 98% of phenol degradation was achieved after 6h of irradiation.

Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic

Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.

Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

First-Principles Density Functional Study of Nitrogen-Doped P-Type ZnO

We present a theoretical investigation on the structural, electronic properties and vibrational mode of nitrogen impurities in ZnO. The atomic structures, formation and transition energies and vibrational modes of (NO3)i interstitial or NO4 substituting on an oxygen site ZnO were computed using ab initio total energy methods. Based on Local density functional theory, our calculations are in agreement with one interpretation of bound-excition photoluminescence for N-doped ZnO. First-principles calculations show that (NO3)i defects interstitial or NO4 substituting on an Oxygen site in ZnO are important suitable impurity for p-type doping in ZnO. However, many experimental efforts have not resulted in reproducible p-type material with N2 and N2O doping. by means of first-principle pseudo-potential calculation we find that the use of NO or NO2 with O gas might help the experimental research to resolve the challenge of achieving p-type ZnO.

Iron Doped Biomaterial Calcium Borate: Synthesis and Characterization

Colemanite is the most common borate mineral, and the main source of the boron required by plants, human, and earth. Transition metals exhibit optical and physical properties such as; non-linear optical character, structural diversity, thermal stability, long cycle life and luminescent radiation. The doping of colemanite with a transition metal, bring it very interesting and attractive properties which make them applicable in industry. Iron doped calcium borate was synthesized by conventional solid state method at 1200 °C for 12 h with a systematic pathway. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS) were used to characterize structural and morphological properties. Also, thermal properties were recorded by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). 

Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Comparison of the Performance of GaInAsSb and GaSb Cells under Different Temperature Blackbody Radiations

GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.

Influence of Boron Doping and Thermal Treatment on Internal Friction of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) Alloys

The impact of boron doping on the internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature spectra of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) monocrsytals has been investigated by reverse torsional pendulum oscillations characteristics testing. At room temperatures, microhardness and indentation modulus of the same specimens have been measured by dynamic ultra microhardness tester. It is shown that boron doping causes two kinds effect: At low boron concentration (~1015 cm-3) significant strengthening is revealed, while at the high boron concentration (~1019 cm-3) strengthening effect and activation characteristics of relaxation origin IF processes are reduced.

Ambipolar Effect Free Double Gate PN Diode Based Tunnel FET

In this paper, we present and investigate a double gate PN diode based tunnel field effect transistor (DGPNTFET). The importance of proposed structure is that the formation of different drain doping is not required and ambipolar effect in OFF state is completely removed for this structure. Validation of this structure to behave like a Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) is carried out through energy band diagrams and transfer characteristics. Simulated result shows point subthreshold slope (SS) of 19.14 mV/decade and ON to OFF current ratio (ION / IOFF) of 2.66 × 1014 (ION at VGS=1.5V, VDS=1V and IOFF at VGS=0V, VDS=1V) for gate length of 20nm and HfO2 as gate oxide at room temperature. Which indicate that the DGPNTFET is a promising candidate for nano-scale, ambipolar free switch.

Suppressing Ambipolar Conduction Using Dual Material Gate in Tunnel-FETs Having Heavily Doped Drain

In this paper, using 2D TCAD simulations, the application of a dual material gate (DMG) for suppressing ambipolar conduction in a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) is demonstrated. Using the proposed DMG concept, the ambipolar conduction can be effectively suppressed even if the drain doping is as high as that of the source doping. Achieving this symmetrical doping, without the ambipolar conduction in TFETs, gives the advantage of realizing both n-type and p-type devices with the same doping sequences. Furthermore, the output characteristics of the DMG TFET exhibit a good saturation when compared to that of the gate-drain underlap approach. This improved behavior of the DMG TFET makes it a good candidate for inverter based logic circuits.

Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500°C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, COchemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Structural and Optical Properties of Pr3+ Doped ZnO and PVA:Zn98Pr2O Nanocomposite Free Standing Film

In this work, we report, a systematic study on the structural and optical properties of Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn98Pr2O polymer matrix nanocomposites free standing films. These particles are synthesized through simple wet chemical route and solution casting technique at room temperature, respectively. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirm that the prepared pure ZnO and Pr doped ZnO nanostructures are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the microstrain is increased upon doping. TEM analysis reveals that the prepared materials are in sheet like nature. Absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band at 370 nm and red shift for the Pr doped ZnO nanostructures. The PVA:Zn98Pr2O composite film exhibits both free excitonic and PVA absorption bands at 282 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.

Nanostructured Pt/MnO2 Catalysts and Their Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising technology for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Catalysts are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate at air cathode necessitates efficient electrocatalyst such as carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) which is very costly. Manganese oxide (MnO2) was a representative metal oxide which has been studied as a promising alternative electrocatalyst for ORR and has been tested in air-cathode MFCs. However the single MnO2 has poor electric conductivity and low stability. In the present work, the MnO2 catalyst has been modified by doping Pt nanoparticle. The goal of the work was to improve the performance of the MFC with minimum Pt loading. MnO2 and Pt nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol gel methods, respectively. Wet impregnation method was used to synthesize Pt/MnO2 catalyst. The catalysts were further used as cathode catalysts in air-cathode cubic MFCs, in which anaerobic sludge was inoculated as biocatalysts and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as the substrate in the anode chamber. The asprepared Pt/MnO2 was characterized comprehensively through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) where its surface morphology, crystallinity, oxidation state and electrochemical activity were examined, respectively. XPS revealed Mn (IV) oxidation state and Pt (0) nanoparticle metal, indicating the presence of MnO2 and Pt. Morphology of Pt/MnO2 observed from FESEM shows that the doping of Pt did not cause change in needle-like shape of MnO2 which provides large contacting surface area. The electrochemical active area of the Pt/MnO2 catalysts has been increased from 276 to 617 m2/g with the increase in Pt loading from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The CV results in O2 saturated neutral Na2SO4 solution showed that MnO2 and Pt/MnO2 catalysts could catalyze ORR with different catalytic activities. MFC with Pt/MnO2 (0.4 wt% Pt) as air cathode catalyst generates a maximum power density of 165 mW/m3, which is higher than that of MFC with MnO2 catalyst (95 mW/m3). The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the MFC operated with MnO2 cathode gradually decreased during 14 days of operation, whereas the MFC with Pt/MnO2 cathode remained almost constant throughout the operation suggesting the higher stability of the Pt/MnO2 catalyst. Therefore, Pt/MnO2 with 0.4 wt% Pt successfully demonstrated as an efficient and low cost electrocatalyst for ORR in air cathode MFC with higher electrochemical activity, stability and hence enhanced performance.

C4H6 Adsorption on the Surface of a BN Nanotube: DFT Studies

Adsorption of a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was examined toward ethylacetylene (C4H6) molecule by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level, and it was found that the adsorption energy (Ead) of ethylacetylene the pristine nanotubes is about -1.60kcal/mol. But when nanotube has been doped with Si and Al atoms, the adsorption energy of ethylacetylene molecule was increased. Calculation showed that when the nanotube is doping by Al, the adsorption energy is about - 24.19kcal/mol and also the amount of HOMO/LUMO energy gap (Eg) will reduce significantly. Boron nitride nanotube is a suitable adsorbent for ethylacetylene and can be used in separation processes ethylacetylene. It is seem that nanotube (BNNT) is a suitable semiconductor after doping, and the doped BNNT in the presence of ethylacetylene an electrical signal is generating directly and therefore can potentially be used for ethylacetylene sensors.