Abstract: In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.
Abstract: In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.
Abstract: A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.
Abstract: In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes
under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law
fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model
based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is
considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic
(EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing
equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We
have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow
behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential,
imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on
the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study
the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution
across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on
general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also
presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte
concentration and flow behavior index.
Abstract: In designing a low-energy-consuming buildings, the heat transfer through a large glass or wall becomes critical. Multiple layers of the window glasses and walls are employed for the high insulation. The gravity driven air flow between window glasses or wall layers is a natural heat convection phenomenon being a key of the heat transfer. For the first step of the natural heat transfer analysis, in this study the development and application of a finite volume method for the numerical computation of viscous incompressible flows is presented. It will become a part of the natural convection analysis with high-order scheme, multi-grid method, and dual-time step in the future. A finite volume method based on a fully-implicit second-order is used to discretize and solve the fluid flow on unstructured grids composed of arbitrary-shaped cells. The integrations of the governing equation are discretised in the finite volume manner using a collocated arrangement of variables. The convergence of the SIMPLE segregated algorithm for the solution of the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is accelerated by using a sparse matrix solver such as BiCGSTAB. The method used in the present study is verified by applying it to some flows for which either the numerical solution is known or the solution can be obtained using another numerical technique available in the other researches. The accuracy of the method is assessed through the grid refinement.
Abstract: Thermal enhancement of a single mini channel in
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cooling plate is
numerically investigated. In this study, low concentration of Al2O3 in
Water - Ethylene Glycol mixtures is used as coolant in single channel
of carbon graphite plate to mimic the mini channels in PEMFC
cooling plate. A steady and incompressible flow with constant heat
flux is assumed in the channel of 1mm x 5mm x 100mm. Nano
particle of Al2O3 used ranges from 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol %
concentration and then dispersed in 60:40 (water: Ethylene Glycol)
mixture. The effect of different flow rates to fluid flow and heat
transfer enhancement in Re number range of 20 to 140 was observed.
The result showed that heat transfer coefficient was improved by
18.11%, 9.86% and 5.37% for 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 vol. % Al2O3 in 60:40
(water: EG) as compared to base fluid of 60:40 (water: EG). It is also
showed that the higher vol. % concentration of Al2O3 performed
better in term of thermal enhancement but at the expense of higher
pumping power required due to increase in pressure drop
experienced. Maximum additional pumping power of 0.0012W was
required for 0.5 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) at Re number 140.
Abstract: This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) solver for simulations of
fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle
Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations
corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures.
The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity
impact loads of deformable thin wedges with three different materials
such as mild steel, aluminium and tin during water entry. The present
simulation results for aluminium are compared with analytical solution
derived from the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear Wan’s
theory. And also, the impact pressure and strain on the water entry
wedge with three different materials, such as mild steel, aluminium
and tin, are simulated and the effects of hydro-elasticity are discussed.
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous
incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic
oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The
research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method
combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. The research
approach develops Schlichting and Wang decomposition method.
Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary
streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research
are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation
Abstract: The practical application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), for predicting the flow pattern around Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle (MAV) hull has made much progress over the last decade. Today, several of the CFD tools play an important role in the land and water going vehicle hull form design. CFD has been used for analysis of MAV hull resistance, sea-keeping, maneuvering and investigating its variation when changing the hull form due to varying its parameters, which represents a very important task in the principal and final design stages. Resistance analysis based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has become a decisive factor in the development of new, economically efficient and environmentally friendly hull forms. Three-dimensional finite volume method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) has been used to simulate incompressible flow around three types of MAV hull bow models in steady-state condition. Finally, the flow structure and streamlines, friction and pressure resistance and velocity contours of each type of hull bow will be compared and discussed.
Abstract: A method for simulating flow around the solid bodies has been presented using hybrid meshfree and mesh-based schemes. The presented scheme optimizes the computational efficiency by combining the advantages of both meshfree and mesh-based methods. In this approach, a cloud of meshfree nodes has been used in the domain around the solid body. These meshfree nodes have the ability to efficiently adapt to complex geometrical shapes. In the rest of the domain, conventional Cartesian grid has been used beyond the meshfree cloud. Complex geometrical shapes can therefore be dealt efficiently by using meshfree nodal cloud and computational efficiency is maintained through the use of conventional mesh-based scheme on Cartesian grid in the larger part of the domain. Spatial discretization of meshfree nodes has been achieved through local radial basis functions in finite difference mode (RBF-FD). Conventional finite difference scheme has been used in the Cartesian ‘meshed’ domain. Accuracy tests of the hybrid scheme have been conducted to establish the order of accuracy. Numerical tests have been performed by simulating two dimensional steady and unsteady incompressible flows around cylindrical object. Steady flow cases have been run at Reynolds numbers of 10, 20 and 40 and unsteady flow problems have been studied at Reynolds numbers of 100 and 200. Flow Parameters including lift, drag, vortex shedding, and vorticity contours are calculated. Numerical results have been found to be in good agreement with computational and experimental results available in the literature.
Abstract: The ongoing effort to develop an in-house
compressible solver with multi-disciplinary physics is presented in
this paper. Basic compressible solver combined with IBM technique
provides us an effective numerical tool able to tackle the physics
phenomena and especially physic phenomena involved in Solid
Rocket Motors (SRMs). Main principles are introduced step by step
describing its implementation. This paper sheds light on the whole
potentiality of our proposed numerical model and we strongly believe
a way to introduce multi-physics mechanisms strongly coupled is
opened to ablation in nozzle, fluid/structure interaction and burning
propellant surface with time.
Abstract: In this paper a numerical algorithm is described for solving the boundary value problem associated with axisymmetric, inviscid, incompressible, rotational (and irrotational) flow in order to obtain duct wall shapes from prescribed wall velocity distributions. The governing equations are formulated in terms of the stream function ψ (x,y)and the function φ (x,y)as independent variables where for irrotational flow φ (x,y)can be recognized as the velocity potential function, for rotational flow φ (x,y)ceases being the velocity potential function but does remain orthogonal to the stream lines. A numerical method based on the finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh is employed. The technique described is capable of tackling the so-called inverse problem where the velocity wall distributions are prescribed from which the duct wall shape is calculated, as well as the direct problem where the velocity distribution on the duct walls are calculated from prescribed duct geometries. The two different cases as outlined in this paper are in fact boundary value problems with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions respectively. Even though both approaches are discussed, only numerical results for the case of the Dirichlet boundary conditions are given. A downstream condition is prescribed such that cylindrical flow, that is flow which is independent of the axial coordinate, exists.
Abstract: This work is to study a roll of the fluctuating density
gradient in the compressible flows for the computational fluid dynamics
(CFD). A new anisotropy tensor with the fluctuating density
gradient is introduced, and is used for an invariant modeling technique
to model the turbulent density gradient correlation equation derived
from the continuity equation. The modeling equation is decomposed
into three groups: group proportional to the mean velocity, and that
proportional to the mean strain rate, and that proportional to the mean
density. The characteristics of the correlation in a wake are extracted
from the results by the two dimensional direct simulation, and shows
the strong correlation with the vorticity in the wake near the body.
Thus, it can be concluded that the correlation of the density gradient
is a significant parameter to describe the quick generation of the
turbulent property in the compressible flows.
Abstract: In this article, various models of surface tension force (CSF, CSS and PCIL) for interfacial flows have been applied to dynamic case and the results were compared. We studied the Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities, which are produced by shear at the interface between two fluids with different physical properties. The velocity inlet is defined as a sinusoidal perturbation. When gravity and surface tension are taking into account, we observe the development of the Instability for a critic value of the difference of velocity of the both fluids. The VOF Model enables to simulate Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability as dynamic case.
Abstract: Along with increasing development of generation of supersonic planes especially fighters and request for increasing the performance and maneuverability scientists and engineers suggested the delta and double delta wing design. One of the areas which was necessary to be researched, was the Aerodynamic review of this type of wings in high angles of attack at low speeds that was very important in landing and takeoff the planes and maneuvers. Leading Edges of the wings,cause the separation flow from wing surface and then formation of powerful vortex with high rotational speed which studing the mechanism and location of formation and also the position of the vortex breakdown in high angles of attack is very important. In this research, a double delta wing with 76o/45o sweep angles at high angle of attack in steady state and incompressible flow were numerically analyzed with Fluent software. With analaysis of the numerical results, we arrived the most important characteristic of the double delta wings which is keeping of lift at high angles of attacks.
Abstract: The present work is concerned with the free
convective two dimensional flow and heat transfer, in isotropic fluid
filled porous rectangular enclosure with differentially heated walls for
steady state incompressible flow have been investigated for non-
Darcy flow model. Effects of Darcy number (0.0001 £Da£ 10),
Rayleigh number (10 £Ra£ 5000), and aspect ratio (0.25 £AR£ 4), for
a range of porosity (0.4 £e£ 0.9) with and without moving lower wall
have been studied. The cavity was insulated at the lower and upper
surfaces. The right and left heated surfaces allows convective
transport through the porous medium, generating a thermal
stratification and flow circulations. It was found that the Darcy
number, Rayleigh number, aspect ratio, and porosity considerably
influenced characteristics of flow and heat transfer mechanisms. The
results obtained are discussed in terms of the Nusselt number,
vectors, contours, and isotherms.
Abstract: Polymer melt compressibility and mold surface roughness, which are generally ignored during the filling stage of the conventional injection molding, may become increasingly significant in micro injection molding where the parts become smaller. By employing the 2.5D generalized Hele-Shaw model, we presented here the effects of polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness on mold-filling in a micro-thickness cavity. To elucidate the effects of surface roughness, numerical investigations were conducted using a cavity flat plate which has two halves with different surface roughness. This allows the comparison of flow field on two different halves under identical processing conditions but with different roughness. Results show that polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness have effects on mold filling in micro injection molding. There is in shrinkage reduction as the density is increased due to polymer melt compressibility during the filling stage.
Abstract: A new conserving approach in the context of Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is presented to simulate one dimensional, incompressible flow in a moving boundary problem. The method employs control volume scheme to simulate the flow field. The concept of ghost node is used at the boundaries to conserve the mass and momentum equations. The Present method implements the conservation laws in all cells including boundary control volumes. Application of the method is studied in a test case with moving boundary. Comparison between the results of this new method and a sharp interface (Image Point Method) IBM algorithm shows a well distinguished improvement in both pressure and velocity fields of the present method. Fluctuations in pressure field are fully resolved in this proposed method. This approach expands the IBM capability to simulate flow field for variety of problems by implementing conservation laws in a fully Cartesian grid compared to other conserving methods.
Abstract: The three-dimensional incompressible flow past a
rectangular open cavity is investigated, where the aspect ratio of the
cavity is considered as 4. The principle objective is to use large-eddy
simulation to resolve and control the large-scale structures, which are
largely responsible for flow oscillations in a cavity. The flow past an
open cavity is very common in aerospace applications and can be a
cause of acoustic source due to hydrodynamic instability of the shear
layer and its interactions with the downstream edge. The unsteady
Navier-stokes equations have been solved on a staggered mesh using
a symmetry-preserving central difference scheme. Synthetic jet has
been used as an active control to suppress the cavity oscillations in
wake mode for a Reynolds number of ReD = 3360. The effect of
synthetic jet has been studied by varying the jet amplitude and
frequency, which is placed at the upstream wall of the cavity. The
study indicates that there exits a frequency band, which is larger than
a critical value, is effective in attenuating cavity oscillations when
blowing ratio is more than 1.0.