Abstract: In the last few years, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) systems have become widely used in the safety, the security, and the commercial aspects. Forethought, several methods and techniques are computing to achieve the better levels in terms of accuracy and real time execution. This paper proposed a computer vision algorithm of Number Plate Localization (NPL) and Characters Segmentation (CS). In addition, it proposed an improved method in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) based on Deep Learning (DL) techniques. In order to identify the number of detected plate after NPL and CS steps, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) algorithm is proposed. A DL model is developed using four convolution layers, two layers of Maxpooling, and six layers of fully connected. The model was trained by number image database on the Jetson TX2 NVIDIA target. The accuracy result has achieved 95.84%.
Abstract: Character detection is an important issue for character recognition of ancient Yi books. The accuracy of detection directly affects the recognition effect of ancient Yi books. Considering the complex layout, the lack of standard typesetting and the mixed arrangement between images and texts, we propose a character detection method for ancient Yi books based on connected components and regressive character segmentation. First, the scanned images of ancient Yi books are preprocessed with nonlocal mean filtering, and then a modified local adaptive threshold binarization algorithm is used to obtain the binary images to segment the foreground and background for the images. Second, the non-text areas are removed by the method based on connected components. Finally, the single character in the ancient Yi books is segmented by our method. The experimental results show that the method can effectively separate the text areas and non-text areas for ancient Yi books and achieve higher accuracy and recall rate in the experiment of character detection, and effectively solve the problem of character detection and segmentation in character recognition of ancient books.
Abstract: Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.
Abstract: Automatic License plate recognition (ALPR) is a technology which recognizes the registration plate or number plate or License plate of a vehicle. In this paper, an Indian vehicle number plate is mined and the characters are predicted in efficient manner. ALPR involves four major technique i) Pre-processing ii) License Plate Location Identification iii) Individual Character Segmentation iv) Character Recognition. The opening phase, named pre-processing helps to remove noises and enhances the quality of the image using the conception of Morphological Operation and Image subtraction. The second phase, the most puzzling stage ascertain the location of license plate using the protocol Canny Edge detection, dilation and erosion. In the third phase, each characters characterized by Connected Component Approach (CCA) and in the ending phase, each segmented characters are conceptualized using cross correlation template matching- a scheme specifically appropriate for fixed format. Major application of ALPR is Tolling collection, Border Control, Parking, Stolen cars, Enforcement, Access Control, Traffic control. The database consists of 500 car images taken under dissimilar lighting condition is used. The efficiency of the system is 97%. Our future focus is Indian Vehicle License Plate Validation (Whether License plate of a vehicle is as per Road transport and highway standard).
Abstract: Localization and Recognition of License registration characters from the moving vehicle is a computationally complex task in the field of machine vision and is of substantial interest because of its diverse applications such as cross border security, law enforcement and various other intelligent transportation applications. Previous research used the plate specific details such as aspect ratio, character style, color or dimensions of the plate in the complex task of plate localization. In this paper, license registration character is localized by Enhanced Weight based density map (EWBDM) method, which is independent of such constraints. In connection with our previous method, this paper proposes a method that relaxes constraints in lighting conditions, different fonts of character occurred in the plate and plates with hand-drawn characters in various aspect quotients. The robustness of this method is well suited for applications where the appearance of plates seems to be varied widely. Experimental results show that this approach is suited for recognizing license plates in different external environments.
Abstract: In this paper we propose a segmentation system for unconstrained Arabic online handwriting. An essential problem addressed by analytical-based word recognition system. The system is composed of two-stages the first is a newly special designed hidden Markov model (HMM) and the second is a rules based stage. In our system, handwritten words are broken up into characters by simultaneous segmentation-recognition using HMMs of unique design trained using online features most of which are novel. The HMM output characters boundaries represent the proposed segmentation points (PSP) which are then validated by rules-based post stage without any contextual information help to solve different segmentation errors. The HMM has been designed and tested using a self collected dataset (OHASD) . Most errors cases are cured and remarkable segmentation enhancement is achieved. Very promising word and character segmentation rates are obtained regarding the unconstrained Arabic handwriting difficulty and not using context help.
Abstract: Character segmentation is an important preprocessing step for text recognition. In degraded documents, existence of touching characters decreases recognition rate drastically, for any optical character recognition (OCR) system. In this paper a study of touching Gurmukhi characters is carried out and these characters have been divided into various categories after a careful analysis.Structural properties of the Gurmukhi characters are used for defining the categories. New algorithms have been proposed to segment the touching characters in middle zone. These algorithms have shown a reasonable improvement in segmenting the touching characters in degraded Gurmukhi script. The algorithms proposed in this paper are applicable only to machine printed text.
Abstract: Character segmentation is an important preprocessing
step for text recognition. In degraded documents, existence of
touching characters decreases recognition rate drastically, for any
optical character recognition (OCR) system. In this paper we have
proposed a complete solution for segmenting touching characters in
all the three zones of printed Gurmukhi script. A study of touching
Gurmukhi characters is carried out and these characters have been
divided into various categories after a careful analysis. Structural
properties of the Gurmukhi characters are used for defining the
categories. New algorithms have been proposed to segment the
touching characters in middle zone, upper zone and lower zone.
These algorithms have shown a reasonable improvement in
segmenting the touching characters in degraded printed Gurmukhi
script. The algorithms proposed in this paper are applicable only to
machine printed text. We have also discussed a new and useful
technique to segment the horizontally overlapping lines.
Abstract: This paper propose the robust character segmentation method for license plate with topological transform such as twist,rotation. The first step of the proposed method is to find a candidate region for character and license plate. The character or license plate
must be appeared as closed loop in the edge image. In the case of
detecting candidate for character region, the evaluation of detected
region is using topological relationship between each character. When
this method decides license plate candidate region, character features
in the region with binarization are used. After binarization for the detected candidate region, each character region is decided again. In
this step, each character region is fitted more than previous step. In the
next step, the method checks other character regions with different
scale near the detected character regions, because most license plates
have license numbers with some meaningful characters around them.
The method uses perspective projection for geometrical normalization.
If there is topological distortion in the character region, the method
projects the region on a template which is defined as standard license
plate using perspective projection. In this step, the method is able to
separate each number region and small meaningful characters. The
evaluation results are tested with a number of test images.