MHD Natural Convection Flow of Tangent Hyperbolic Nanofluid Past a Vertical Permeable Cone

In this paper, a non-similraity analysis has been presented to exhibit the two-dimensional boundary layer flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid nearby a vertical permeable cone in the presence of variable wall temperature impact. The mutated boundary layer nonlinear governing equations are solved numerically by the an efficient implicit finite difference procedure. For both nanofluid effective viscosity and nanofluid thermal conductivity, a number of experimental relations have been recognized. For characterizing the nanofluid, the compatible nanoparticle volume fraction model has been used. Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are calculated for some values of Weissenberg number W, surface temperature exponent n, magnetic field parameter Mg, power law index m and Prandtl number Pr as functions of suction parameter. The rate of heat transfer from a vertical permeable cone in a regular fluid is less than that in nanofluids. A best convection has been presented by Copper nanoparticle among all the used nanoparticles.

A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Numerical Solution of Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow Due to Gyrotactic Microorganism for Williamson Nanofluid over Stretched Surface in the Presence of Exponential Internal Heat Generation

This paper focuses on the study of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady incompressible viscous Williamson nanofluid with exponential internal heat generation containing gyrotactic microorganism over a stretching sheet. The governing equations and auxiliary conditions are reduced to a set of non-linear coupled differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically through spectral relaxation method. The influences of various parameters such as Williamson parameter γ, power constant λ, Prandtl number Pr, magnetic field parameter M, Peclet number Pe, Lewis number Le, Bioconvection Lewis number Lb, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, and bioconvection constant σ are studied to obtain the momentum, heat, mass and microorganism distributions. Moment, heat, mass and gyrotactic microorganism profiles are explored through graphs and tables. We computed the heat transfer rate, mass flux rate and the density number of the motile microorganism near the surface. Our numerical results are in better agreement in comparison with existing calculations. The Residual error of our obtained solutions is determined in order to see the convergence rate against iteration. Faster convergence is achieved when internal heat generation is absent. The effect of magnetic parameter M decreases the momentum boundary layer thickness but increases the thermal boundary layer thickness. It is apparent that bioconvection Lewis number and bioconvection parameter has a pronounced effect on microorganism boundary. Increasing brownian motion parameter and Lewis number decreases the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, magnetic field parameter and thermophoresis parameter has an induced effect on concentration profiles.

Spectral Investigation for Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable Wall in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic Field

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Falkner-Skan equations appear in study of laminar boundary layers flow over a wedge in presence of a transverse magnetic field. The partial differential equations of boundary layer problems in presence of a transverse magnetic field are reduced to MHD Falkner-Skan equation by similarity solution methods. This is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In this paper, we solve this equation via spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first kind. In this approach, we reduce the solution of the nonlinear MHD Falkner-Skan equation to a solution of a nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then, the resulting system is solved by Newton method. We discuss obtained solution by studying the behavior of boundary layer flow in terms of skin friction, velocity, various amounts of magnetic field and angle of wedge. Finally, the results are compared with other methods mentioned in literature. We can conclude that the presented method has better accuracy than others.

FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.

Radiation Effect on MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Power-Law Stretching Sheet with Chemical Reaction

This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson fluid over a nonlinearly permeable stretching surface with chemical reaction in the presence of variable magnetic field. The effect of thermal radiation is considered to control the rate of heat transfer at the surface. Using similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations of this problem are reduced into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by finite difference method. It is observed that the velocity at fixed point decreases with increasing the nonlinear stretching parameter but the temperature increases with nonlinear stretching parameter.

Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nanothermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nanoparticles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nanofluids. To model the rotation of nanoparticles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that, the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Boundary Layer Flow of a Casson Nanofluid past a Vertical Exponentially Stretching Cylinder in the Presence of a Transverse Magnetic Field with Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

An analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of magnetic field and heat source on the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson nanofluid over a vertical cylinder stretching exponentially along its radial direction. Using a similarity transformation, the governing mathematical equations, with the boundary conditions are reduced to a system of coupled, non –linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting system is solved numerically by the fourth order Runge – Kutta scheme with shooting technique. The influence of various physical parameters such as Reynolds number, Prandtl number, magnetic field, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and the natural convection parameter are presented graphically and discussed for non – dimensional velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. Numerical data for the skin – friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number have been tabulated for various parametric conditions. It is found that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Brownian motion parameter Nb and the thermophoresis parameter Nt.

Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis

The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable shrinking sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow and a local heat generation within the boundary layer, with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T)p Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the stretching/shrinking parameter λ, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value λc whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorption (Q

Stability Analysis of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Shrinking Surface in a Cu-Water Nanofluid

In this paper, the steady laminar three-dimensional boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid in the vicinity of a permeable shrinking flat surface in an otherwise quiescent fluid is studied. The nanofluid mathematical model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Dual solutions (upper and lower branch solutions) are found for the similarity boundary layer equations for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. The numerical results for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained, presented and discussed in detail for a range of various governing parameters.

Conceptual Design of the TransAtlantic as a Research Platform for the Development of “Green” Aircraft Technologies

Recent concerns of the growing impact of aviation on climate change has prompted the emergence of a field referred to as Sustainable or “Green” Aviation dedicated to mitigating the harmful impact of aviation related CO2 emissions and noise pollution on the environment. In the current paper, a unique “green” business jet aircraft called the TransAtlantic was designed (using analytical formulation common in conceptual design) in order to show the feasibility for transatlantic passenger air travel with an aircraft weighing less than 10,000 pounds takeoff weight. Such an advance in fuel efficiency will require development and integration of advanced and emerging aerospace technologies. The TransAtlantic design is intended to serve as a research platform for the development of technologies such as active flow control. Recent advances in the field of active flow control and how this technology can be integrated on a sub-scale flight demonstrator are discussed in this paper. Flow control is a technique to modify the behavior of coherent structures in wall-bounded flows (over aerodynamic surfaces such as wings and turbine nozzles) resulting in improved aerodynamic cruise and flight control efficiency. One of the key challenges to application in manned aircraft is development of a robust high-momentum actuator that can penetrate the boundary layer flowing over aerodynamic surfaces. These deficiencies may be overcome in the current development and testing of a novel electromagnetic synthetic jet actuator which replaces piezoelectric materials as the driving diaphragm. One of the overarching goals of the TranAtlantic research platform include fostering national and international collaboration to demonstrate (in numerical and experimental models) reduced CO2/ noise pollution via development and integration of technologies and methodologies in design optimization, fluid dynamics, structures/ composites, propulsion, and controls.

Thermophoresis Particle Precipitate on Heated Surfaces

This work deals with heat and mass transfer by steady laminar boundary layer flow of a Newtonian, viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with variable surface heat flux embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoresis particle deposition effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into no-similar form by using special transformation and solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference method. Many results are obtained and a representative set is displaced graphically to illustrate the influence of the various physical parameters on the wall thermophoresis deposition velocity and concentration profiles. It is found that the increasing of thermophoresis constant or temperature differences enhances heat transfer rates from vertical surfaces and increase wall thermophoresis velocities; this is due to favorable temperature gradients or buoyancy forces. It is also found that the effect of thermophoresis phenomena is more pronounced near pure natural convection heat transfer limit; because this phenomenon is directly a temperature gradient or buoyancy forces dependent. Comparisons with previously published work in the limits are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving the Falkner–Skan Equation

A novel method based on Genetic Algorithm to solve the boundary value problems (BVPs) of the Falkner–Skan equation over a semi-infinite interval has been presented. In our approach, we use the free boundary formulation to truncate the semi-infinite interval into a finite one. Then we use the shooting method based on Genetic Algorithm to transform the BVP into initial value problems (IVPs). Genetic Algorithm is used to calculate shooting angle. The initial value problems arisen during shooting are computed by Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. The numerical solutions obtained by the present method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

Thermosolutal MHD Mixed Marangoni Convective Boundary Layers in the Presence of Suction or Injection

The steady coupled dissipative layers, called Marangoni mixed convection boundary layers, in the presence of a magnetic field and solute concentration that are formed along the surface of two immiscible fluids with uniform suction or injection effects is examined. The similarity boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg with shooting technique. The Marangoni, buoyancy and external pressure gradient effects that are generated in mixed convection boundary layer flow are assessed. The velocity, temperature and concentration boundary layers thickness decrease with the increase of the magnetic field strength and the injection to suction. For buoyancy-opposed flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter enhances the velocity boundary layer but decreases the temperature and concentration boundary layers. However, for the buoyancy-assisted flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter decelerates the velocity but increases the temperature and concentration boundary layers.

Numerical Investigation of Two-dimensional Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Surface

In this chapter, we have studied Variation of velocity in incompressible fluid over a moving surface. The boundary layer equations are on a fixed or continuously moving flat plate in the same or opposite direction to the free stream with suction and injection. The boundary layer equations are transferred from partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting methods. We have found numerical solution to velocity and skin friction coefficient.