Abstract: An ammonium based ionic liquid (methyltrioctylammonium chloride) [N8 8 8 1] [Cl] was investigated as an extraction potential solvent for volatile organic solvents (in this regard, solutes), which includes alkenes, alkanes, ketones, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, tetrahydrofuran (THF), alcohols, thiophene, water and acetonitrile based on the experimental activity coefficients at infinite THF measurements were conducted by the use of gas-liquid chromatography at four different temperatures (313.15 to 343.15) K. Experimental data of activity coefficients obtained across the examined temperatures were used in order to calculate the physicochemical properties at infinite dilution such as partial molar excess enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy term. Capacity and selectivity data for selected petrochemical extraction problems (heptane/thiophene, heptane/benzene, cyclohaxane/cyclohexene, hexane/toluene, hexane/hexene) were computed from activity coefficients data and compared to the literature values with other ionic liquids. Evaluation of activity coefficients at infinite dilution expands the knowledge and provides a good understanding related to the interactions between the ionic liquid and the investigated compounds.
Abstract: Ionic liquids are finding a wide range of applications from reaction media to separations and materials processing. In these applications, Vapor–Liquid equilibrium (VLE) is the most important one. VLE for six systems at 353 K and activity coefficients at infinite dilution [(γ)_i^∞] for various solutes (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, aromatics, alcohols, ketones, esters, ethers, and water) in the ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMIM][BTI], 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [BMPYR][BTI]) have been used to train neural networks in the temperature range from (303 to 333) K. Densities of the ionic liquids, Hildebrant constant of substances, and temperature were selected as input of neural networks. The networks with different hidden layers were examined. Networks with seven neurons in one hidden layer have minimum error and good agreement with experimental data.
Abstract: The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (ΔGex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water
interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.
Abstract: Currently, thorium fuel has been especially noticed
because of its proliferation resistance than long half-life alpha emitter
minor actinides, breeding capability in fast and thermal neutron flux
and mono-isotopic naturally abundant. In recent years, efficiency of
minor actinide burning up in PWRs has been investigated. Hence, a
minor actinide-contained thorium based fuel matrix can confront both
proliferation resistance and nuclear waste depletion aims. In the
present work, minor actinide depletion rate in a CANDU-type nuclear
core modeled using MCNP code has been investigated. The obtained
effects of minor actinide load as mixture of thorium fuel matrix on
the core neutronics has been studied with comparing presence and
non-presence of minor actinide component in the fuel matrix.
Depletion rate of minor actinides in the MA-contained fuel has been
calculated using different power loads. According to the obtained
computational data, minor actinide loading in the modeled core
results in more negative reactivity coefficients. The MA-contained
fuel achieves less radial peaking factor in the modeled core. The
obtained computational results showed 140 kg of 464 kg initial load
of minor actinide has been depleted in during a 6-year burn up in 10
Abstract: This work focused on the interactions which occur between ester solvents and alcohol solutes. The alcohols selected ranged from the simplest alcohol (methanol) to C10-alcohols, and solubility predictions in the form of infinite dilution activity coefficients were made using the Modified UNIFAC Dortmund group contribution model. The model computation was set up on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet specifically designed for this purpose. It was found that alcohol/ ester interactions yielded an increase in activity coefficients (i.e. became less soluble) with an increase in the size of the ester solvent molecule. Furthermore, activity coefficients decreased with an increase in the size of the alcohol solute. The activity coefficients also decreased with an increase in the degree of unsaturation of the ester hydrocarbon tail. Tertiary alcohols yielded lower activity coefficients than primary alcohols. Finally, cyclic alcohols yielded higher activity coefficients than straight-chain alcohols until a point is reached where the trend is reversed, referred to as the ‘crossover’ point.
Abstract: Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The binary mixture of n-Butylamine + Cumene shows positive deviation from ideality. Triethylamine + Cumene mixture shows negligible deviation from ideality. None of the systems form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency test of Herington. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. The activity coefficient values obtained by the UNIFAC model are also reported.
Abstract: This work considered the thermodynamic feasibility
of scrubbing volatile organic compounds into biodiesel in view of
designing a gas treatment process with this absorbent. A detailed
vapour – liquid equilibrium investigation was performed using the
original UNIFAC group contribution method. The four biodiesels
studied in this work are methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, methyl
linolenate and ethyl stearate. The original UNIFAC procedure was
used to estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficients of 13
selected volatile organic compounds in the biodiesels. The
calculations were done at the VOC mole fraction of 9.213x10-8. Ethyl
stearate gave the most favourable phase equilibrium. A close
agreement was found between the infinite dilution activity coefficient
of toluene found in this work and those reported in literature.
Thermodynamic models can efficiently be used to calculate vast
amount of phase equilibrium behaviour using limited number of
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds in water and silicon oil using the simple static headspace method. The experimental design allowed equilibrium achievement within 30 – 60 minutes. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry-s law constants for various organics representing esters, ketones, alkanes, aromatics, cycloalkanes and amines were measured at 303K. The measurements were reproducible with a relative standard deviation and coefficient of variation of 1.3x10-3 and 1.3 respectively. The static determined activity coefficients using shaker flasks were reasonably comparable to those obtained using the gas liquid - chromatographic technique and those predicted using the group contribution methods mainly the UNIFAC. Silicon oil chemically known as polydimethysiloxane was found to be better absorbent for VOCs than water which quickly becomes saturated. For example the infinite dilution mole fraction based activity coefficients of hexane is 0.503 and 277 000 in silicon oil and water respectively. Thus silicon oil gives a superior factor of 550 696. Henry-s law constants and activity coefficients at infinite dilution play a significant role in the design of scrubbers for abatement of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air streams. This paper presents the phase equilibrium of volatile organic compounds in very dilute aqueous and polymeric solutions indicating the movement and fate of chemical in air and solvent. The successful comparison of the results obtained here and those obtained using other methods by the same authors and in literature, means that the results obtained here are reliable.
Abstract: Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of Mesitylene + 1-Heptanol and Mesitylene + 1-Octanol at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. Both the mixtures show positive deviation from ideality. The Mesitylene + 1-Heptanol mixture forms an azeotrope whereas Mesitylene + 1- Octanol form a non – azeotropic mixture. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency tests of Herington, and Hirata. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, Redlich-Kister, Wilson, Black, and NRTL equations. The activity coefficient values have also been obtained by UNIFAC method.
Abstract: Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are
reported for binary mixture of 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Cumene
at 97.3 kPa. The data were obtained using a vapor recirculating type
(modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The mixture shows slight
negative deviation from ideality. The system does not form an
azeotrope. The experimental data obtained in this study are
thermodynamically consistent according to the Herington test. The
activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of
the Margules, and NRTL equations. Excess Gibbs free energy has
been calculated from the experimental data. The values of activity
coefficients have also been obtained by the UNIFAC group
Abstract: This paper is a continuation of our interest in the influence of temperature on specific retention volumes and the resulting infinite dilution activity coefficients. This has a direct effect in the design of absorption and stripping columns for the abatement of volatile organic compounds. The interaction of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at varying temperatures was studied by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Infinite dilution activity coefficients and specific retention volumes obtained in this study were found to be in agreement with those obtained from static headspace and group contribution methods by the authors as well as literature values for similar systems. Temperature variation also allows for transport calculations for different seasons. The results of this work confirm that PDMS is well suited for the scrubbing of VOCs from waste gas streams. Plots of specific retention volumes against temperature gave linear van-t Hoff plots.
Abstract: Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are
reported for the binary mixture of Methyl acetate and
Isopropylbenzene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been
performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's)
equilibrium still. The mixture shows positive deviation from ideality
and does not form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been
calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The
data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency tests of Herington and
Black. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by
means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. A comparison
of the values of activity coefficients obtained by experimental data
with the UNIFAC model has been made.
Abstract: Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are
of major interest to researchers and engineers involved synthesis,
feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes as
well as other applications of industrial use. Reliable knowledge of
the phase equilibrium behavior is crucial for the prediction of the fate
of the chemical in the environment and other applications. The
objective of this study was to predict the solubility of selected
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in glycol polymers and
biodiesel. Measurements can be expensive and time consuming,
hence the need for thermodynamic models. The results obtained in
this study for the infinite dilution activity coefficients compare very
well those published in literature obtained through measurements. It
is suggested that in preliminary design or feasibility studies of
absorption systems for the abatement of volatile organic compounds,
prediction procedures should be implemented while accurate fluid
phase equilibrium data should be obtained from experiment.