Abstract: This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.
Abstract: In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.
Abstract: A smart grid is an emerging technology in the power delivery system which provides an intelligent, self-recovery and homeostatic grid in delivering power to the users. Smart grid communication network provides transmission capacity for information transformation within the connected nodes in the network, in favor of functional and operational needs. In the electric grids communication network delay is based on choosing the appropriate technology and the types of devices enforced. In distinction, the combination of IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX and IEEE 802.11 based WiFi technologies provides improved coverage and gives low delay performances to meet the smart grid needs. By incorporating this method in Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) the performance of the smart grid will be considerably improved. This work deals with the implementation of WiMAX-WLAN integrated network architecture for WAMS and AMI in the smart grid.
Abstract: Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.
Abstract: Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.
Abstract: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a broadband technology, which can effectively transmit a data across a group of users using Multicast and Broadcast Service. WiMAX belongs to a family of (IEEE 802.16) standards and is evolving as a fourth generation technology. WiMAX is the next generation technology that offers wireless access over long distances. MBS zone, which is a group of base stations that are broadcasting the same multicast packets which defines Multicast and Broadcast services. Handover is a process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. The handover causes authentication, delay, packet loss, jitter that mainly affects the communication. In this paper, we present a survey on handover security issues in WiMAX.
Abstract: E-Learning enables the users to learn at anywhere at
any time. In E-Learning systems, authenticating the E-Learning user
has security issues. The usage of appropriate communication
networks for providing the internet connectivity for E-learning is
another challenge. WiMAX networks provide Broadband Wireless
Access through the Multicast Broadcast Service so these networks
can be most suitable for E-Learning applications. The authentication
of E-Learning user is vulnerable to session hijacking problems. The
repeated authentication of users can be done to overcome these
issues. In this paper, session based Profile Caching Authentication is
proposed. In this scheme, the credentials of E-Learning users can be
cached at authentication server during the initial authentication
through the appropriate subscriber station. The proposed cache based
authentication scheme performs fast authentication by using cached
user profile. Thus, the proposed authentication protocol reduces the
delay in repeated authentication to enhance the security in ELearning.
Abstract: IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) aims to present high speed
wireless access to cover wide range coverage. The base station (BS)
and the subscriber station (SS) are the main parts of WiMAX.
WiMAX uses either Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) or mesh topologies.
In the PMP mode, the SSs connect to the BS to gain access to the
network. However, in the mesh mode, the SSs connect to each other
to gain access to the BS.
The main components of QoS management in the 802.16 standard
are the admission control, buffer management and packet scheduling.
In this paper, we use QualNet 5.0.2 to study the performance of
different scheduling schemes, such as WFQ, SCFQ, RR and SP when
the numbers of SSs increase. We find that when the number of SSs
increases, the average jitter and average end-to-end delay is increased
and the throughput is reduced.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip
fractal antenna based on the use of Sierpinski triangle shape, it’s
designed and simulated by using FR4 substrate in the operating
frequency bands (GPS, WiMAX), the design is a fractal antenna with
a modified ground structure. The proposed antenna is simulated and
validated by using CST Microwave Studio Software, the simulated
results presents good performances in term of radiation pattern and
matching input impedance.
Abstract: Different order modulations combined with different
coding schemes, allow sending more bits per symbol, thus achieving
higher throughputs and better spectral efficiencies. However, it must
also be noted that when using a modulation technique such as 64-
QAM with less overhead bits, better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are
needed to overcome any Inter symbol Interference (ISI) and maintain
a certain bit error ratio (BER). The use of adaptive modulation allows
wireless technologies to yielding higher throughputs while also
covering long distances. The aim of this paper is to implement an
Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) features of the WiMAX
PHY in MATLAB and to analyze the performance of the system in
different channel conditions (AWGN, Rayleigh and Rician fading
channel) with channel estimation and blind equalization. Simulation
results have demonstrated that the increment in modulation order
causes to increment in throughput and BER values. These results
derived a trade-off among modulation order, FFT length, throughput,
BER value and spectral efficiency. The BER changes gradually for
AWGN channel and arbitrarily for Rayleigh and Rician fade
Abstract: WiMAX is a telecommunications technology and it is
specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.,
as the IEEE 802.16 standard. The goal of this technology is to
provide a wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways. IEEE
802.16 is a recent standard for mobile communication. In this paper,
we provide an overview of various key management algorithms to
provide security for WiMAX.
Abstract: Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that
empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based
Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy.
Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any
information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the
sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy
detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz,
FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station
frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz.
The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with
convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210
(Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based
Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the
BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER
execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise
power spectral density ratio) values.
Abstract: This paper addresses the reduction of peak to average
power ratio (PAPR) for the OFDM in Mobile-WiMAX physical layer
(PHY) standard. In the process, the best achievable PAPR of 0 dB is
found for the OFDM spectrum using phase modulation technique
which avoids the nonlinear distortion. The performance of the
WiMAX PHY standard is handled by the software defined radio
(SDR) prototype in which GNU Radio and USRP N210 employed as
software and hardware platforms respectively. It is also found that
BER performance is shown for different coding and different
modulation schemes. To empathize wireless propagation in specific
environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system
is designed by using SDR testbed.
Abstract: In this paper, the design of a coaxial feed single layer rectangular microstrip patch antenna for three different wireless communication band applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate Roger RT/duroid 5880 having permittivity of about 2.2 and tangent loss of 0.0009. The characteristics of the substrate are designed and to evaluate the performance of modeled antenna using HFSS v.11 EM simulator, from Ansoft. The proposed antenna has small in size and operates at 2.25GHz, 3.76GHz and 5.23GHz suitable for mobile satellite service (MSS) network, WiMAX and WLAN applications. The dimension of the patch and slots are optimized to obtain these desired functional frequency ranges. The simulation results with frequency response, radiation pattern and return loss, VSWR, Input Impedance are presented with appropriate table and graph.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel CPW fed patch antenna supporting a wide band from 2.7 GHz – 6.5 GHz. The antenna is compact with size 32 x 30 x 1.6mm3, built over FR4-epoxy substrate (εr=4.4). Bandwidth enhancement has been achieved by using the concept of modified ground structure (MGS). For this purpose structural design has been optimized by parametric simulations in CST MWS. The proposed antenna can perform well in variety of wireless communication services including 5.15 GHz- 5.35 GHz and 5.725 GHz- 5.825 GHz WLAN IEEE 802.11 g/a, 5.2/ 5.5/ 5.8 GHz Wi-Fi, 3.5/5.5 GHz WiMax applications and 3.7 - 4.2 GHz C band satellite communications bands. The measured experimental results show that bandwidth (S11 < -10 dB) of antenna is 3.8 GHz. The performance of antenna is studied in terms of reflection coefficient, radiation characteristics, current distribution and gain.
Abstract: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) became one of the most challenging issues, since it was responsible for distributing available resources of the network among all users this leaded to the demand of constructing and designing high efficient scheduling algorithms in order to improve the network utilization, to increase the network throughput, and to minimize the end-to-end delay. In this study, the proposed algorithm focuses on an efficient mechanism to serve non_real time traffic in congested networks by considering channel status.
Abstract: A low profile planar antenna for twelve-band operation in the mobile phone is presented. The proposed antenna radiating elements occupy an area equals 17 × 50 mm2 are mounted on the compact no-ground portion of the system circuit board to achieve a simple low profile structure. In order to overcome the shortcoming of narrow bandwidth for conventional planar printed antenna, a novel bandwidth enhancement approach for multiband handset antennas is proposed here. The technique used in this study shows that by using a coupled-fed mechanism and a slotted ground structure, a multiband operation with wideband characteristic can be achieved. The influences of the modifications introduced into the ground plane improved significantly the bandwidths of the designed antenna. The slotted ground plane structure with the coupled-fed elements contributes their lowest, middle and higher-order resonant modes to form four operating modes. The generated modes are able to cover LTE 700/2300/2500, GSM 850/900/1800/1900, UMTS, WiMAX 3500, WLAN 2400/5200/5800 operations. Parametric studies via simulation are provided and discussed. Proposed antenna’s gain, efficiency and radiation pattern characteristics over the desired operating bands are obtained and discussed. The reasonable results observed can meet the requirements of practical mobile phones.
Abstract: In this paper a novel ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antenna with band notch characteristics for world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is proposed. The designed antenna consists of a rectangular radiating patch and a ground plane with tapered shape slot. To realize a notch band, a curved parasitic element has been etched out along with the radiating patch. It is observed that by adjusting the length, thickness and position of the parasitic element, the proposed antenna can achieved an impedance bandwidth of 8.01GHz (2.84 to 10.85GHz) with a notched band of 3.28-3.85GHz. Compared to the recently reported band notch antennas, the proposed antenna has a simple configuration to realize band notch characteristics in order to mitigate the potential interference between WiMAX and UWB system. Furthermore, a stable radiation pattern and moderate gain except at the notched band makes the proposed antenna suitable for various UWB applications.
Abstract: In this paper, an overview of the radio over fiber (RoF) technology is provided. Obstacles for reducing the capital and operational expenses in the existing systems are discussed in various perspectives. Some possible RoF deployment scenarios for WiMAX
data transmission are proposed as a means for capital and operational
expenses reduction. IEEE 802.16a standard based end-to-end physical layer model is simulated including intensity modulated direct detection RoF technology. Finally the feasibility of RoF
technology to carry WiMAX signals between the base station and the
remote antenna units is demonstrated using the simulation results.
Abstract: PROFIBUS (PROcess FIeld BUS) which is defined with international standarts (IEC61158, EN50170) is the most popular fieldbus, and provides a communication between industrial applications which are located in different control environment and location in manufacturing, process and building automation. Its communication speed is from 9.6 Kbps to 12 Mbps over distances from 100 to 1200 meters, and so it is to be often necessary to interconnect them in order to break these limits. Unfortunately this interconnection raises several issues and the solutions found so far are not very satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a new solution to interconnect PROFIBUS segments, which uses a wireless MAN based on the IEEE 802.16 standard as a backbone system. Also, the solution which is described a model for internetworking unit integrates the traffic generated by PROFIBUS segments into IEEE 802.16 wireless MAN using encapsulation technique.