Abstract: In today’s world, electrical energy has become an indispensable component of all aspects of modern human life. Reliability, security and stability are the key aspects of any power system. Failure to meet any of these three aspects results into a great impediment to modern life. Modern power systems are being subjected to heavily stressed conditions leading to voltage stability problems. If the voltage stability problems are not mitigated properly through proper voltage stability assessment methods, cascading events may occur which may lead to voltage collapse or blackout events. Modern FACTS devices like STATCOM are one of the measures to overcome the blackout problems. As these devices are very costly, they must be installed properly at suitable locations, mostly at weak bus. Line voltage stability indices such as FVSI, Lmn and LQP play important role for identification of a weak bus. This paper presents evaluation of these line stability indices for the assessment of reliable information about the closeness of the power system to voltage collapse. PSAT is a user-friendly MATLAB toolbox, of which CPF is an important feature which has been extensively used for the placement of STATCOM to assess the stability. Novelty of the present research work lies in that the active and reactive load has been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration. MATLAB code has been developed for the same and tested successfully on various standard IEEE test systems. The results for standard IEEE14 bus test system, specifically, are presented in this paper.
Abstract: At present, the evaluation of voltage stability
assessment experiences sizeable anxiety in the safe operation of
power systems. This is due to the complications of a strain power
system. With the snowballing of power demand by the consumers
and also the restricted amount of power sources, therefore, the system
has to perform at its maximum proficiency. Consequently, the
noteworthy to discover the maximum ability boundary prior to
voltage collapse should be undertaken. A preliminary warning can be
perceived to evade the interruption of power system’s capacity. The
effectiveness of line voltage stability indices (LVSI) is differentiated
in this paper. The main purpose of the indices used is to predict the
proximity of voltage instability of the electric power system. On the
other hand, the indices are also able to decide the weakest load buses
which are close to voltage collapse in the power system. The line
stability indices are assessed using the IEEE 14 bus test system to
validate its practicability. Results demonstrated that the implemented
indices are practically relevant in predicting the manifestation of
voltage collapse in the system. Therefore, essential actions can be
taken to dodge the incident from arising.
Abstract: This paper presents the voltage problem location
classification using performance of Least Squares Support Vector
Machine (LS-SVM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in
electrical power system for proper voltage problem location
implemented by IEEE 39 bus New- England. The data was collected
from the time domain simulation by using Power System Analysis
Toolbox (PSAT). Outputs from simulation data such as voltage, phase
angle, real power and reactive power were taken as input to estimate
voltage stability at particular buses based on Power Transfer Stability
Index (PTSI).The simulation data was carried out on the IEEE 39 bus
test system by considering load bus increased on the system. To verify
of the proposed LS-SVM its performance was compared to Learning
Vector Quantization (LVQ). The results showed that LS-SVM is faster
and better as compared to LVQ. The results also demonstrated that the
LS-SVM was estimated by 0% misclassification whereas LVQ had
Abstract: Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.
Abstract: According to the increasing utilization in power system, the transmission lines and power plants often operate in stability boundary and system probably lose its stable condition by over loading or occurring disturbance. According to the reasons that are mentioned, the prediction and recognition of voltage instability in power system has particular importance and it makes the network security stronger.This paper, by considering of power system contingencies based on the effects of them on Mega Watt Margin (MWM) and maximum loading point is focused in order to analyse the static voltage stability using continuation power flow method. The study has been carried out on IEEE 14-Bus Test System using Matlab and Psat softwares and results are presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a simple method for estimation of
additional load as a factor of the existing load that may be drawn
before reaching the point of line maximum loadability of radial
distribution system (RDS) with different realistic load models at
different substation voltages. The proposed method involves a simple
line loadability index (LLI) that gives a measure of the proximity of
the present state of a line in the distribution system. The LLI can use
to assess voltage instability and the line loading margin. The
proposed method also compares with the existing method of
maximum loadability index . The simulation results show that the
LLI can identify not only the weakest line/branch causing system
instability but also the system voltage collapse point when it is near
one. This feature enables us to set an index threshold to monitor and
predict system stability on-line so that a proper action can be taken to
prevent the system from collapse. To demonstrate the validity of the
proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on two bus
and 69 bus RDS.
Abstract: At present, it is very common to find renewable
energy resources, especially wind power, connected to distribution
systems. The impact of this wind power on voltage distribution levels
has been addressed in the literature. The majority of this works deals
with the determination of the maximum active and reactive power
that is possible to be connected on a system load bus, until the
voltage at that bus reaches the voltage collapse point. It is done by the
traditional methods of PV curves reported in many references.
Theoretical expression of maximum power limited by voltage
stability transfer through a grid is formulated using an exact
representation of distribution line with ABCD parameters. The
expression is used to plot PV curves at various power factors of a
radial system. Limited values of reactive power can be obtained. This
paper presents a method to study the relationship between the active
power and voltage (PV) at the load bus to identify the voltage
stability limit. It is a foundation to build a permitted working
operation region in complying with the voltage stability limit at the
point of common coupling (PCC) connected wind farm.
Abstract: One of the major causes of voltage instability is the reactive power limit of the system. Improving the system's reactive power handling capacity via Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS) devices is a remedy for prevention of voltage instability and hence voltage collapse. In this paper, the effects of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement will be studied. AC and DC representations of SVC and STATCOM are used in the continuation power flow process in static voltage stability study. The IEEE-14 bus system is simulated to test the increasing loadability. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the loadability margin of power systems.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an easily computable proximity index for predicting voltage collapse of a load bus using only measured values of the bus voltage and power; Using these measurements a polynomial of fourth order is obtained by using LES estimation algorithms. The sum of the absolute values of the polynomial coefficient gives an idea of the critical bus. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed method on 6 bus test system. The results obtained verify its applicability, as well as its accuracy and the simplicity. From this indicator, it is allowed to predict the voltage instability or the proximity of a collapse. Results obtained by the PV curve are compared with corresponding values by QV curves and are observed to be in close agreement.
Abstract: This paper presents dynamic voltage collapse prediction on an actual power system using support vector machines.
Dynamic voltage collapse prediction is first determined based on the PTSI calculated from information in dynamic simulation output. Simulations were carried out on a practical 87 bus test system by considering load increase as the contingency. The data collected from the time domain simulation is then used as input to the SVM in which support vector regression is used as a predictor to determine the
dynamic voltage collapse indices of the power system. To reduce training time and improve accuracy of the SVM, the Kernel function type and Kernel parameter are considered. To verify the
effectiveness of the proposed SVM method, its performance is compared with the multi layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). Studies show that the SVM gives faster and more accurate results for dynamic voltage collapse prediction compared with the MLPNN.
Abstract: Voltage collapse is instability of heavily loaded electric
power systems that cause to declining voltages and blackout. Power
systems are predicated to become more heavily loaded in the future
decade as the demand for electric power rises while economic and
environmental concerns limit the construction of new transmission
and generation capacity. Heavily loaded power systems are closer to
their stability limits and voltage collapse blackouts will occur if
suitable monitoring and control measures are not taken. To control
transmission lines, it can be used from FACTS devices.
In this paper Harmony search algorithm (HSA) and Genetic
Algorithm (GA) have applied to determine optimal location of
FACTS devices in a power system to improve power system stability.
Three types of FACTS devices (TCPAT, UPFS, and SVC) have been
introduced. Bus under voltage has been solved by controlling reactive
power of shunt compensator. Also a combined series-shunt
compensators has been also used to control transmission power flow
and bus voltage simultaneously.
Different scenarios have been considered. First TCPAT, UPFS, and
SVC are placed solely in transmission lines and indices have been
calculated. Then two types of above controller try to improve
parameters randomly. The last scenario tries to make better voltage
stability index and losses by implementation of three types controller
simultaneously. These scenarios are executed on typical 34-bus test
system and yields efficiency in improvement of voltage profile and
reduction of power losses; it also may permit an increase in power
transfer capacity, maximum loading, and voltage stability margin.