Effect of Coffee Grounds on Physical and Heating Value Properties of Sugarcane Bagasse Pellets

Objective of this research is to study effect of coffee grounds on physical and heating value properties of sugarcane bagasse pellets. The coffee grounds were tested as an additive for pelletizing process of bagasse pellets. Pelletizing was performed using a Flat–die pellet mill machine. Moisture content of raw materials was controlled at 10-13%. Die temperature range during the process was 75-80 oC. Physical characteristics (bulk density and durability) of the bagasse pellet and pellets with 1-5% coffee ground were determined following the standard assigned by the Pellet Fuel Institute (PFI). The results revealed increasing values of 648±3.4, 659 ± 3.1, 679 ± 3.3 and 685 ± 3.1 kg/m3 (for pellet bulk density); and 98.7 ± 0.11, 99.2 ± 0.26, 99.3 ± 0.19 and 99.4 ± 0.07% (for pellet durability), respectively. In addition, the heating values of the coffee ground supplemented pellets (15.9 ± 1.16, 17.0 ± 1.23 and 18.8 ± 1.34 MJ/kg) were improved comparing to the non-supplemented control (14.9 ± 1.14 MJ/kg), respectively. The results indicated that both the bulk density and durability values of the bagasse pellets were increased with the increasing proportion of the coffee ground additive.

Growth Performance and Yield of the Edible White Rot Fungus (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Different Agro Waste Materials

A study was carried out to evaluate the growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus spawn on different organic substrates in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 50 g each of four different substrates namely; corncobs, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust sourced locally from farmlands and processing sites, were amended with 2% calcium carbonate and calcium sulphide and sterilized using three sterilization methods namely; hot water, steam, and lime. Five grams of P. ostreatus spawn were inoculated unto treated substrates, incubated in the dark for 16 days and in light for 19 days at 25 0C for the commencement of pinhead and fruit body formations respectively. Growth and yield parameters such as days to full colonization, days to pinhead formation and days to fruit body formation were recorded. Cap diameter and fresh weight of mature mushrooms were also measured for a total count of four flushes. P. ostreatus spawn grown on sugarcane bagasse recorded the highest mean cap diameter (4.69 cm), highest mean fresh weight (34.68 g), highest biological efficiency (69.37%) and highest production rate (2.83 g per day). Spawn grown on rice straw recorded the least number of days to full substrate colonization (11.00). Spawn grown on corn cobs recorded the least mean number of days to pin head (18.75) and fruiting body formations (20.25). There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among the evaluated substrates with respect to growth and yield performance of P. ostreatus. Substrates sterilized with hot water supported the highest mean cap diameter (5.64 cm), highest biological efficiency (87.04%) and highest production rate (3.43 g per day) of P. ostreatus. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in cap diameter, fresh weight, biological efficiency and production rates among the evaluated sterilization methods. Hot water sterilization of sugarcane bagasse could be adopted for enhanced yield of oyster mushrooms, especially among indigent farming communities in Nigeria and beyond.

Effect of Different Microbial Strains on Biological Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Among agricultural residues, sugarcane bagasse is one of the most convincing raw materials for the production of bioethanol due to its availability, and low cost through enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. A pretreatment step is needed to enhance the enzymatic step. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Thailand, was pretreated biologically with various microorganisms of white-rot fungus—Phanerochaete sordid (SK 7), Cellulomonas sp. (TISTR 784), and strain A 002 (Bacillus subtilis isolated from Thai higher termites). All samples with various microbial pretreatments were further hydrolyzed enzymatically by a commercial enzyme obtained from Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the pretreatment with the white-rot fungus gave the highest glucose concentration around two-fold higher when compared with the others.

Development of Efficient Fungal Biomass-Degrading Enzyme Mixtures for Saccharification of Local Lignocellulosic Feedstock

Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is the basis process for production of fuels, chemicals and materials in the sustainable biorefinery industry. Saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is an essential step which produces sugars for further conversion to target value-added products e.g. bio-ethanol, bio-plastic, g-valerolactone (GVL), 5-hydroxymethylfuroic acid (HMF), levulinic acid, etc. The goal of this work was to develop an efficient enzyme for conversion of biomass to reducing sugar based on crude fungal enzyme from Chaetomium globosum BCC5776 produced by submerged fermentation and evaluate its activity comparing to a commercial Acremonium cellulase. Five local biomasses in Thailand: rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, corncobs, corn stovers, and palm empty fruit bunches were pretreated and hydrolyzed with varying enzyme loadings. Saccharification of the biomass led to different reducing sugar levels from 115 mg/g to 720 mg/g from different types of biomass using cellulase dosage of 9 FPU/g. The reducing sugar will be further employed as sugar feedstock for production of ethanol or commodity chemicals. This work demonstrated the use of promising enzyme candidate for conversion of local lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery industry.

Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Thermal and Morphological Evaluation of Chemically Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse

Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the major steps involved in the conversion from sugarcane bagasse to yield ethanol. This process offers potential for yields and selectivity higher, lower energy costs and milder operating conditions than chemical processes. However, the presence of some factors such as lignin content, crystallinity degree of the cellulose, and particle sizes, limits the digestibility of the cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreatment aims to improve the access of the enzyme to the substrate. In this study sugarcane bagasse was submitted chemical pretreatment that consisted of two consecutive steps, the first with dilute sulfuric acid (1 % (v/v) H2SO4), and the second with alkaline solutions with different concentrations of NaOH (1, 2, 3 and 4 % (w/v)). Thermal Analysis (TG/ DTG and DTA) was used to evaluate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents in the samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological structures of the in natura and chemically treated samples. Results showed that pretreatments were effective in chemical degradation of lignocellulosic materials of the samples, and also was possible to observe the morphological changes occurring in the biomasses after pretreatments.

Avicelase Production by a Thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from Soil using Sugarcane Bagasse

Studies were carried out on the comparative study of the production of Avicelase enzyme using sugarcane bagasse-SCB in two different statuses (i.e. treated and untreated SCB) by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus at 50ºC. Only four thermophilic bacterial isolates were isolated and assayed for Avicelase production using UntSCB and TSCB. Only one isolate selected as most potent and identified as G. stearothermophilus used in this study. A specific endo-β-1,4-D-glucanase (Avicelase EC was partially purified from a thermophilic bacterial strain was isolated from different soil samples when grown on cellulose enrichment SCB substrate as the sole carbon source. Results shown that G. stearothermophilus was the better Avicelase producer strain. Avicelase had an optimum pH and temperature 7.0 and 50ºC for both UntSCB and TSCB and exhibited good pH stability between "5-8" and "4-9", however, good temperature stability between (30-80ºC) for UntSCB and TSCB, respectively. Other factors affecting the production of Avicelase were compared (i.e. SCB concentration, inoculum size and different incubation periods), all results observed and obtained were revealed that the TSCB was exhibited maximal enzyme activity in comparison with the results obtained from UntSCB, so, the TSCB was enhancing the Avicelase production.

Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by Means of Enzymes Produced by Solid State Fermentation Method

Nowadays there is a growing interest in biofuel production in most countries because of the increasing concerns about hydrocarbon fuel shortage and global climate changes, also for enhancing agricultural economy and producing local needs for transportation fuel. Ethanol can be produced from biomass by the hydrolysis and sugar fermentation processes. In this study ethanol was produced without using expensive commercial enzymes from sugarcane bagasse. Alkali pretreatment was used to prepare biomass before enzymatic hydrolysis. The comparison between NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 shows NaOH is more effective on bagasse. The required enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced from sugarcane solid state fermentation via two fungi: Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Aspergillus niger. The results show that the produced enzyme solution via A. niger has functioned better than T. longibrachiatum. Ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with crude enzyme solution from T. longibrachiatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. To evaluate this procedure, SSF of pretreated bagasse was also done using Celluclast 1.5L by Novozymes. The yield of ethanol production by commercial enzyme and produced enzyme solution via T. longibrachiatum was 81% and 50% respectively.

Study of Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment with Sulfuric Acid as a Step of Cellulose Obtaining

To produce sugar and ethanol, sugarcane processing generates several agricultural residues, being straw and bagasse is considered as the main among them. And what to do with this residues has been subject of many studies and experiences in an industry that, in recent years, highlighted by the ability to transform waste into valuable products such as electric power. Cellulose is the main component of these materials. It is the most common organic polymer and represents about 1.5 x 1012 tons of total production of biomass per year and is considered an almost inexhaustible source of raw material. Pretreatment with mineral acids is one of the most widely used as stage of cellulose extraction from lignocellulosic materials for solubilizing most of the hemicellulose content. This study had as goal to find the best reaction time of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with sulfuric acid in order to minimize the losses of cellulose concomitantly with the highest possible removal of hemicellulose and lignin. It was found that the best time for this reaction was 40 minutes, in which it was reached a loss of hemicelluloses around 70% and lignin and cellulose, around 15%. Over this time, it was verified that the cellulose loss increased and there was no loss of lignin and hemicellulose.

Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasses for Lactic Acid Production by acid Hydrolysis and Fermentation using Lactobacillus sp

Sugarcane bagasses are one of the most extensively used agricultural residues. Using acid hydrolysis and fermentation, conversion of sugarcane bagasses to lactic acid was technically and economically feasible. This research was concerned with the solubility of lignin in ammonium hydroxide, acid hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. The lignin extraction results for different ammonium hydroxide concentrations showed that 10 % (v/v) NH4OH was favorable to lignin dissolution. Acid hydrolysis can be enhanced with increasing acid concentration and reaction temperature. The optimum glucose and xylose concentrations occurred at 121 ○C for 1 hour hydrolysis time in 10% sulphuric acid solution were 32 and 11 g/l, respectively. In order to investigate the significance of medium composition on lactic acid production, experiments were undertaken whereby a culture of Lactococcus lactis was grown under various glucose, peptone, yeast extract and xylose concentrations. The optimum medium was composed of 5 g/l glucose, 2.5 g/l xylose, 10 g/l peptone and 5 g/l yeast extract. Lactococcus lactis represents the most efficient for lactic acid production amongst those considered. The lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis after 72 hours gave the highest yield of 1.4 (g lactic acid per g reducing sugar).

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF) of Sugarcane Bagasse - Kinetics and Modeling

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of sugarcane bagasse by cellulase and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC *1077 were investigated in the present study. Important process variables for ethanol production form pretreated bagasse were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) experiments. A 23 five level CCD experiments with central and axial points was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables such as incubation temperature (25–45°) X1, pH (5.0–7.0) X2 and fermentation time (24–120 h) X3. Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation and contour plots were used to study the interactions among three relevant variables of the fermentation process. The fermentation experiments were carried out using an online monitored modular fermenter 2L capacity. The processing parameters setup for reaching a maximum response for ethanol production was obtained when applying the optimum values for temperature (32°C), pH (5.6) and fermentation time (110 h). Maximum ethanol concentration (3.36 g/l) was obtained from 50 g/l pretreated sugarcane bagasse at the optimized process conditions in aerobic batch fermentation. Kinetic models such as Monod, Modified Logistic model, Modified Logistic incorporated Leudeking – Piret model and Modified Logistic incorporated Modified Leudeking – Piret model have been evaluated and the constants were predicted.