Abstract: In this paper, we present a numerical optical properties of a triangular periodic lattice of elliptical air holes. We report the influence of the ratio (semi-major axis length of elliptical hole to the filling ratio) on the photonic band gap. Then by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm, the resonant wavelength of the point defect microcavities in a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) shifts towards the low wavelengths with significantly increased filing ratio. It can be noted that the Q factor is gradually changed to higher when the filling ratio increases. It is due to an increase in reflectivity of the PC mirror. Also we theoretically investigate the H1 cavity, where the value of semi-major axis (Rx) of the six holes surrounding the cavity are fixed at 0.5a and the Rx of the two edge air holes are fixed at the optimum value of 0.52a. The highest Q factor of 4.1359 × 106 is achieved at the resonant mode located at λ = 1.4970 µm.
Abstract: Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) uses are no longer limited to telecommunication only rather it is now used for many sensors-based fiber optics application, medical science, space application and so on. In this paper, the authors have proposed a microstructure PCF that is designed by using Finite Element Method (FEM) based software. Besides designing, authors have discussed the necessity of the characteristics that it poses for some specified applications because it is not possible to have all good characteristics from a single PCF. Proposed PCF shows the property of ultra-high birefringence (0.0262 at 1550 nm) which is more useful for sensor based on fiber optics. The non-linearity of this fiber is 50.86 w-1km-1 at 1550 nm wavelength which is very high to guide the light through the core tightly. For Perfectly Matched Boundary Layer (PML), 0.6 μm diameter is taken. This design will offer the characteristics of Nonzero-Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (NZ-DSF) for 450 nm waveband. Since it is a software-based design and no practical evaluation has made, 2% tolerance is checked and the authors have found very small variation of the characteristics.
Abstract: Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.
Abstract: In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.
Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution
refractive index sensor based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal (MPC)
composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si
matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole
in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic
materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the
resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite
difference time domain method under different ambient conditions
having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results
show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is
distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is
studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show
that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.
Abstract: We report the design and characterization of ultra high
quality factor filter based on one-dimensional photonic-crystal Thue-
Morse sequence structure. The behavior of aperiodic array of
photonic crystal structure is numerically investigated and we show
that by changing the angle of incident wave, desired wavelengths
could be tuned and a tunable filter is realized. Also it is shown that
high quality factor filter be achieved in the telecommunication
window around 1550 nm, with a device based on Thue-Morse
structure. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has a
quality factor more than 100000 and it is suitable for DWDM
Abstract: Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical
communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with
low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear
effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we
introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic
crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low
nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low
dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm
using the proposed design. According to the new structure of
nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion
slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7
dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same
time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.
Abstract: A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched
Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost
multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber
(SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host
polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on
nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m
long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL
produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14
lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a
stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to
25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of
69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum
pulse width of 4.4 μs was obtained at the maximum pump power of
133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump
power of 69.0 mW.
Abstract: in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional
photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube
in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output
Abstract: In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching
(MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide
discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is
divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided
and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically
by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method
for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the
modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure.
The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to
study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to
fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared
to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint
Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.
Abstract: A simple microstructure optical fiber design based on an octagonal cladding structure is presented for simultaneously controlling dispersion and leakage properties. The finite difference method with anisotropic perfectly matched boundary layer is used to investigate the guiding properties. It is demonstrated that octagonal photonic crystal fibers with four rings can assume negative ultra-flattened dispersion of -19 + 0.23 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1.275 μm to 1.68 μm, nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.40 ps/nm/km in a 1.38 to 1.64 μm, and low confinement losses less than 10-3 dB/km in the entire band of interest.
Abstract: A compact 1x3 power splitter based on Photonic
Crystal Waveguides (PCW) with flexible power splitting ratio is
presented in this paper. Multimode interference coupler (MMI) is
integrated with PCW. The device size reduction compared with the
conventional MMI power splitter is attributed to the large dispersion
of the PCW. Band Solve tool is used to calculate the band structure of
PCW. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is adopted to
simulate the relevant structure at 1550nm wavelength. The device is
polarization insensitive and allows the control of output (o/p) powers
within certain percentage points for both polarizations.
Abstract: Photonic Crystal (PhC) based devices are being
increasingly used in multifunctional, compact devices in integrated
optical communication systems. They provide excellent
controllability of light, yet maintaining the small size required for
miniaturization. In this paper, the band gap properties of PhCs and
their typical applications in optical waveguiding are considered.
Novel PhC based applications such as nonlinear switching and
tapers are considered and simulation results are shown using the
accurate time-domain numerical method based on Finite Difference
Time Domain (FDTD) scheme. The suitability of these devices for
novel applications is discussed and evaluated.
Abstract: A time-domain numerical model within the
framework of transmission line modeling (TLM) is developed to
simulate electromagnetic pulse propagation inside multiple
microcavities forming photonic crystal (PhC) structures. The model
developed is quite general and is capable of simulating complex
electromagnetic problems accurately. The field quantities can be
mapped onto a passive electrical circuit equivalent what ensures that
TLM is provably stable and conservative at a local level.
Furthermore, the circuit representation allows a high level of
hybridization of TLM with other techniques and lumped circuit
models of components and devices. A photonic crystal structure
formed by rods (or blocks) of high-permittivity dieletric material
embedded in a low-dielectric background medium is simulated as an
example. The model developed gives vital spatio-temporal
information about the signal, and also gives spectral information over
a wide frequency range in a single run. The model has wide
applications in microwave communication systems, optical
waveguides and electromagnetic materials simulations.