Abstract: Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.
Abstract: Honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless
bees (Meliponini) in Ecuador. We studied honey produced in
beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by
Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey
were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at
298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified
double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence.
Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for
PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully
identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of
honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera,
Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore
recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.