Abstract: Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.
Abstract: Image compression can improve the performance of
the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage
and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality.
Furthermore, the discrete cosine transform has emerged as the new
state-of-the art standard for image compression. In this paper, a
hybrid image compression technique based on reversible blockade
transform coding is proposed. The technique, implemented over
regions of interest (ROIs), is based on selection of the coefficients
that belong to different transforms, depending on the coefficients is
proposed. This method allows: (1) codification of multiple kernals
at various degrees of interest, (2) arbitrary shaped spectrum,and (3)
flexible adjustment of the compression quality of the image and the
background. No standard modification for JPEG2000 decoder was
required. The method was applied over different types of images.
Results show a better performance for the selected regions, when
image coding methods were employed for the whole set of images.
We believe that this method is an excellent tool for future image
compression research, mainly on images where image coding can
be of interest, such as the medical imaging modalities and several
multimedia applications. Finally VLSI implementation of proposed
method is shown. It is also shown that the kernal of Hartley and
Cosine transform gives the better performance than any other model.
Abstract: Image compression plays a vital role in today-s
communication. The limitation in allocated bandwidth leads to
slower communication. To exchange the rate of transmission in the
limited bandwidth the Image data must be compressed before
transmission. Basically there are two types of compressions, 1)
LOSSY compression and 2) LOSSLESS compression. Lossy
compression though gives more compression compared to lossless
compression; the accuracy in retrievation is less in case of lossy
compression as compared to lossless compression. JPEG, JPEG2000
image compression system follows huffman coding for image
compression. JPEG 2000 coding system use wavelet transform,
which decompose the image into different levels, where the
coefficient in each sub band are uncorrelated from coefficient of
other sub bands. Embedded Zero tree wavelet (EZW) coding exploits
the multi-resolution properties of the wavelet transform to give a
computationally simple algorithm with better performance compared
to existing wavelet transforms. For further improvement of
compression applications other coding methods were recently been
suggested. An ANN base approach is one such method. Artificial
Neural Network has been applied to many problems in image
processing and has demonstrated their superiority over classical
methods when dealing with noisy or incomplete data for image
compression applications. The performance analysis of different
images is proposed with an analysis of EZW coding system with
Error Backpropagation algorithm. The implementation and analysis
shows approximately 30% more accuracy in retrieved image
compare to the existing EZW coding system.
Abstract: Efficient storage, transmission and use of video information are key requirements in many multimedia applications currently being addressed by MPEG-4. To fulfill these requirements, a new approach for representing video information which relies on an object-based representation, has been adopted. Therefore, objectbased watermarking schemes are needed for copyright protection. This paper proposes a novel blind object watermarking scheme for images and video using the in place lifting shape adaptive-discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT). In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy image/video compression (e.g. JPEG, JPEG2000 and MPEG-4), scaling, adding noise, filtering, etc.
Abstract: In this paper we present a novel approach for face image coding. The proposed method makes a use of the features of video encoders like motion prediction. At first encoder selects appropriate prototype from the database and warps it according to features of encoding face. Warped prototype is placed as first I frame. Encoding face is placed as second frame as P frame type. Information about features positions, color change, selected prototype and data flow of P frame will be sent to decoder. The condition is both encoder and decoder own the same database of prototypes. We have run experiment with H.264 video encoder and obtained results were compared to results achieved by JPEG and JPEG2000. Obtained results show that our approach is able to achieve 3 times lower bitrate and two times higher PSNR in comparison with JPEG. According to comparison with JPEG2000 the bitrate was very similar, but subjective quality achieved by proposed method is better.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.
Abstract: In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.
Abstract: As far as the latest technological improvements are concerned, digital systems more become popular than the past. Despite this growing demand to the digital systems, content copy and attack against the digital cinema contents becomes a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose “traceable watermarking using Hash functions for digital cinema system. Digital Cinema is a great application for traceable watermarking since it uses watermarking technology during content play as well as content transmission. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected movie frames using CRC-32 techniques. CRC-32 is a Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash Function so that any party cannot break off the watermarking or will not be able to change. Finally, our experimental results show that proposed DWT watermarking method using CRC-32 is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.
Abstract: Measurement of the quality of image compression is important for image processing application. In this paper, we propose an objective image quality assessment to measure the quality of gray scale compressed image, which is correlation well with subjective quality measurement (MOS) and least time taken. The new objective image quality measurement is developed from a few fundamental of objective measurements to evaluate the compressed image quality based on JPEG and JPEG2000. The reliability between each fundamental objective measurement and subjective measurement (MOS) is found. From the experimental results, we found that the Maximum Difference measurement (MD) and a new proposed measurement, Structural Content Laplacian Mean Square Error (SCLMSE), are the suitable measurements that can be used to evaluate the quality of JPEG200 and JPEG compressed image, respectively. In addition, MD and SCLMSE measurements are scaled to make them equivalent to MOS, given the rate of compressed image quality from 1 to 5 (unacceptable to excellent quality).
Abstract: The algorithm represents the DCT coefficients to concentrate signal energy and proposes combination and dictator to eliminate the correlation in the same level subband for encoding the DCT-based images. This work adopts DCT and modifies the SPIHT algorithm to encode DCT coefficients. The proposed algorithm also provides the enhancement function in low bit rate in order to improve the perceptual quality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique improves the quality of the reconstructed image in terms of both PSNR and the perceptual results close to JPEG2000 at the same bit rate.
Abstract: Wavelet transforms is a very powerful tools for image compression. One of its advantage is the provision of both spatial and frequency localization of image energy. However, wavelet transform coefficients are defined by both a magnitude and sign. While algorithms exist for efficiently coding the magnitude of the transform coefficients, they are not efficient for the coding of their sign. It is generally assumed that there is no compression gain to be obtained from the coding of the sign. Only recently have some authors begun to investigate the sign of wavelet coefficients in image coding. Some authors have assumed that the sign information bit of wavelet coefficients may be encoded with the estimated probability of 0.5; the same assumption concerns the refinement information bit. In this paper, we propose a new method for Separate Sign Coding (SSC) of wavelet image coefficients. The sign and the magnitude of wavelet image coefficients are examined to obtain their online probabilities. We use the scalar quantization in which the information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also examined. We show that the sign information and the refinement information may be encoded by the probability of approximately 0.5 only after about five bit planes. Two maps are separately entropy encoded: the sign map and the magnitude map. The refinement information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also entropy encoded. An algorithm is developed and simulations are performed on three standard images in grey scale: Lena, Barbara and Cameraman. Five scales are performed using the biorthogonal wavelet transform 9/7 filter bank. The obtained results are compared to JPEG2000 standard in terms of peak signal to noise ration (PSNR) for the three images and in terms of subjective quality (visual quality). It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the JPEG2000. The proposed method is also compared to other codec in the literature. It is shown that the proposed method is very successful and shows its performance in term of PSNR.
Abstract: In this paper, the implementation of low power,
high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional
Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The
analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a
high performance DWT encoder  with minimum memory
requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the
design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters
included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT
for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced
memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing
progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between
the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental
results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics
as well as their memory efficient operation.
Abstract: This paper presents a VLSI design approach of a highspeed
and real-time 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform computing. The
proposed architecture, based on new and fast convolution approach,
reduces the hardware complexity in addition to reduce the critical
path to the multiplier delay. Furthermore, an advanced twodimensional
(2-D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT)
implementation, with an efficient memory area, is designed to
produce one output in every clock cycle. As a result, a very highspeed
is attained. The system is verified, using JPEG2000
coefficients filters, on Xilinx Virtex-II Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) device without accessing any external memory. The
resulting computing rate is up to 270 M samples/s and the (9,7) 2-D
wavelet filter uses only 18 kb of memory (16 kb of first-in-first-out
memory) with 256×256 image size. In this way, the developed design
requests reduced memory and provide very high-speed processing as
well as high PSNR quality.
Abstract: The huge development of new technologies and the
apparition of open communication system more and more
sophisticated create a new challenge to protect digital content from
piracy. Digital watermarking is a recent research axis and a new
technique suggested as a solution to these problems. This technique
consists in inserting identification information (watermark) into
digital data (audio, video, image, databases...) in an invisible and
indelible manner and in such a way not to degrade original medium-s
quality. Moreover, we must be able to correctly extract the
watermark despite the deterioration of the watermarked medium (i.e
attacks). In this paper we propose a system for watermarking satellite
images. We chose to embed the watermark into frequency domain,
precisely the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We applied our
algorithm on satellite images of Tunisian center. The experiments
show satisfying results. In addition, our algorithm showed an
important resistance facing different attacks, notably the compression
(JEPG, JPEG2000), the filtering, the histogram-s manipulation and
geometric distortions such as rotation, cropping, scaling.
Abstract: Breast cancer detection techniques have been reported
to aid radiologists in analyzing mammograms. We note that most
techniques are performed on uncompressed digital mammograms.
Mammogram images are huge in size necessitating the use of
compression to reduce storage/transmission requirements. In this
paper, we present an algorithm for the detection of
microcalcifications in the JPEG2000 domain. The algorithm is based
on the statistical properties of the wavelet transform that the
JPEG2000 coder employs. Simulation results were carried out at
different compression ratios. The sensitivity of this algorithm ranges
from 92% with a false positive rate of 4.7 down to 66% with a false
positive rate of 2.1 using lossless compression and lossy compression
at a compression ratio of 100:1, respectively.
Abstract: Several methods have been proposed for color image
compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise
ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy
compression technique for color images which overcomes the
drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel
values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two
dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results
than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based
on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments
on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with
previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.
Abstract: With the advent of digital cinema and digital
broadcasting, copyright protection of video data has been one of the
most important issues.
We present a novel method of watermarking for video image data
based on the hardware and digital wavelet transform techniques and
name it as “traceable watermarking" because the watermarked data is
constructed before the transmission process and traced after it has been
received by an authorized user.
In our method, we embed the watermark to the lowest part of each
image frame in decoded video by using a hardware LSI.
Digital Cinema is an important application for traceable
watermarking since digital cinema system makes use of watermarking
technology during content encoding, encryption, transmission,
decoding and all the intermediate process to be done in digital cinema
systems. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected
movie frames using hash functions.
Embedded watermark information can be extracted from the
decoded video data. For that, there is no need to access original movie
data. Our experimental results show that proposed traceable
watermarking method for digital cinema system is much better than the
convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image
quality, speed, simplicity and robust structure.
Abstract: In this work, we present a comparison between two
techniques of image compression. In the first case, the image is
divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan. In
the second one, we apply the Fast Cosine Transform to the image,
and then the transformed image is divided in blocks which are
collected according to zig-zag scan too. Later, in both cases, the
Karhunen-Loève transform is applied to mentioned blocks. On the
other hand, we present three new metrics based on eigenvalues for a
better comparative evaluation of the techniques. Simulations show
that the combined version is the best, with minor Mean Absolute
Error (MAE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE), higher Peak Signal to
Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality. Finally, new technique
was far superior to JPEG and JPEG2000.
Abstract: As the development of digital technology is increasing,
Digital cinema is getting more spread.
However, content copy and attack against the digital cinema becomes
a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose
“Additional Watermarking" for digital cinema delivery system. With
this proposed “Additional watermarking" method, we protect content
copyrights at encoder and user side information at decoder. It realizes
the traceability of the watermark embedded at encoder.
The watermark is embedded into the random-selected frames using
Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash
Function so that third parties do not break off the watermarking
Finally, our experimental results show that proposed method is much
better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of
robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.