Abstract: We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.
Abstract: This work aims to investigate the properties and microstructure of diamond-like carbon film deposited by pulsed laser deposition by ablation of a graphite target in a vacuum chamber on a steel substrate. The equipment was mounted to provide one laser beam. The target of high purity graphite and the steel substrate were polished. The mechanical and tribological properties of the film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, scratch test, roughness profile, tribometer, optical microscopy and SEM images. It was concluded that the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique associated with the low-pressure chamber and a graphite target provides a good fraction of sp3 bonding, that the process variable as surface polishing and laser parameter have great influence in tribological properties and in adherence tests performance. The optical microscopy images are efficient to identify the metallurgical bond.
Abstract: Fe-based amorphous feedstock powders are used as the matrix into which various ratios of hard B4C nanoparticles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 vol.%) as reinforcing agents were prepared using a planetary high-energy mechanical milling. The ball-milled nanocomposite feedstock powders were also sprayed by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technique. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coating depending on their microstructures and nanohardness were examined in detail using nanoindentation tester. The results showed that the formation of the Fe-based amorphous phase was noticed over the course of high-energy ball milling. It is interesting to note that the nanocomposite coating is divided into two regions, namely, a full amorphous phase region and homogeneous dispersion of B4C nanoparticles with a scale of 10–50 nm in a residual amorphous matrix. As the B4C content increases, the nanohardness of the composite coatings increases, but the fracture toughness begins to decrease at the B4C content higher than 20 vol.%. The optimal mechanical properties are obtained with 15 vol.% B4C due to the suitable content and uniform distribution of nanoparticles. Consequently, the changes in mechanical properties of the coatings were attributed to the changes in the brittle to ductile transition by adding B4C nanoparticles.
Abstract: Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a new method to overcome such a problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into a 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used for structural parts in aerospace applications. Such a layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assume that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced a slight difference, as shown in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results shown here can be used as the scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.
Abstract: An ion implantation technique was used for designing the surface area of a titanium alloy and for irradiation-enhanced hardening of the surface. The Ti6Al4V alloy was treated by nitrogen ion implantation at fluences of 2·1017 and 4·1017 cm-2 and at ion energy 90 keV. The depth distribution of the nitrogen was investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The gradient of mechanical properties was investigated by nanoindentation. The continuous measurement mode was used to obtain depth profiles of the indentation hardness and the reduced storage modulus of the modified surface area. The reduced storage modulus and the hardness increase with increasing fluence. Increased fluence shifts the peak of the mechanical properties as well as the peak of nitrogen concentration towards to the surface. This effect suggests a direct relationship between mechanical properties and nitrogen distribution.
Abstract: The impact of boron doping on the internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature spectra of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) monocrsytals has been investigated by reverse torsional pendulum oscillations characteristics testing. At room temperatures, microhardness and indentation modulus of the same specimens have been measured by dynamic ultra microhardness tester. It is shown that boron doping causes two kinds effect: At low boron concentration (~1015 cm-3) significant strengthening is revealed, while at the high boron concentration (~1019 cm-3) strengthening effect and activation characteristics of relaxation origin IF processes are reduced.
Abstract: Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any
activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often
described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances
have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human
tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo
tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical
properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g.
animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to
analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present
study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which
is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element
method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made
possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles
are represented separately and the material properties for them are
obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address
macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large
extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features
have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that
may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the
present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of
the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture
regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.
Abstract: The sintering step in powder metallurgy (P/M) processes is very sensitive as it determines to a large extent the properties of the final component produced. Spark plasma sintering over the past decade has been extensively used in consolidating a wide range of materials including metallic alloy powders. This novel, non-conventional sintering method has proven to be advantageous offering full densification of materials, high heating rates, low sintering temperatures, and short sintering cycles over conventional sintering methods. Ti6Al4V has been adjudged the most widely used α+β alloy due to its impressive mechanical performance in service environments, especially in the aerospace and automobile industries being a light metal alloy with the capacity for fuel efficiency needed in these industries. The P/M route has been a promising method for the fabrication of parts made from Ti6Al4V alloy due to its cost and material loss reductions and the ability to produce near net and intricate shapes. However, the use of this alloy has been largely limited owing to its relatively poor hardness and wear properties. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification, hardness, and wear behaviors of spark plasma sintered Ti6Al4V powders was investigated in this present study. Sintering of the alloy powders was performed in the 650–850°C temperature range at a constant heating rate, applied pressure and holding time of 100°C/min, 50 MPa and 5 min, respectively. Density measurements were carried out according to Archimedes’ principle and microhardness tests were performed on sectioned as-polished surfaces at a load of 100gf and dwell time of 15 s. Dry sliding wear tests were performed at varied sliding loads of 5, 15, 25 and 35 N using the ball-on-disc tribometer configuration with WC as the counterface material. Microstructural characterization of the sintered samples and wear tracks were carried out using SEM and EDX techniques. The density and hardness characteristics of sintered samples increased with increasing sintering temperature. Near full densification (99.6% of the theoretical density) and Vickers’ micro-indentation hardness of 360 HV were attained at 850°C. The coefficient of friction (COF) and wear depth improved significantly with increased sintering temperature under all the loading conditions examined, except at 25 N indicating better mechanical properties at high sintering temperatures. Worn surface analyses showed the wear mechanism was a synergy of adhesive and abrasive wears, although the former was prevalent.
Abstract: 10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.
Abstract: Graphene, a single-atom sheet, has been considered as
the most promising material for making future nanoelectromechanical
systems as well as purely electrical switching with graphene
transistors. Graphene-based devices have advantages in scaled-up
device fabrication due to the recent progress in large area graphene
growth and lithographic patterning of graphene nanostructures. Here
we investigated its mechanical responses of circular graphene
nanoflake under the nanoindentation using classical molecular
dynamics simulations. A correlation between the load and the
indentation depth was constructed. The nanoindented force in this
work was applied to the center point of the circular graphene nanoflake
and then, the resonance frequency could be tuned by a nanoindented
depth. We found the hardening or the softening of the graphene
nanoflake during its nanoindented-deflections, and such properties
were recognized by the shift of the resonance frequency. The
calculated mechanical parameters in the force-vs-deflection plot were
in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical works.
This proposed schematics can detect the pressure via the deflection
change or/and the resonance frequency shift, and also have great
potential for versatile applications in nanoelectromechanical systems.
Abstract: The present study deals with the characterization of
CrSiN coatings obtained by PVD magnetron sputtering systems.
CrSiN films were deposited with different Si contents, in order to
check the effect of at.% variation on the different properties of the
Cr–N system. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) for thickness measurements, X-ray diffraction.
Surface morphology and the roughness characteristics were explored
using AFM, Mechanicals properties, elastic and plastic deformation
resistance of thin films were investigated using nanoindentation test. We observed that the Si addition improved the hardness and the
Young’s modulus of the Cr–N system. Indeed, the hardness value is
18,56 GPa for CrSiN coatings. Besides, the Young’s modulus value
is 224,22 GPa for CrSiN coatings for Si content of 1.2 at.%.
Abstract: These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and
AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD
magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings
were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM
analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are
uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers.
Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum
hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively.
The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30
GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the
coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and
decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN
coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.
Abstract: The nanoindentation behaviour and phase
transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined.
The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and
450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum
loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented
specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all
annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading
curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under
higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is
replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete
amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas
the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases.
The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline
silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and
indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as
the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.
Abstract: Transmission shafts are affected by various forces, for
example, during acceleration or sudden breaks, bending during
transportation, vertical forces that lead to cuts. One of the main
failures in combines is breaking shaft which repairmen refer it.
Structural resistance of canal against torque is very important in the
beginning of the movement. For analyzing stress, a typical sample
from a type of combine was selected, called JD955 combine. Long
shaft in this combine was analyzed with finite element method by
Ansys13 generic package under static load. Conducted analysis
showed that there is a maximum stress in contact surfaces of
indentations and also in place of changing diameter. Safety factor
value is low in parts of the shaft and this increases the probability of
failure at these points. To improve the conditions with the least cost
and an approach of product improvement, using alternative alloy is
Abstract: In this study, ultrasonic assisted machining (UAM) technique is applied in side-surface milling experiment for glass-ceramic workpiece material. The tungsten carbide cutting-tool with diamond coating is used in conjunction with two kinds of cooling/lubrication mediums such as water-soluble (WS) cutting fluid and minimum quantity lubricant (MQL). Full factorial process parameter combinations on the milling experiments are planned to investigate the effect of process parameters on cutting performance. From the experimental results, it tries to search for the better process parameter combination which the edge-indentation and the surface roughness are acceptable. In the machining experiments, ultrasonic oscillator was used to excite a cutting-tool along the radial direction producing a very small amplitude of vibration frequency of 20KHz to assist the machining process. After processing, toolmaker microscope was used to detect the side-surface morphology, edge-indentation and cutting tool wear under different combination of cutting parameters, and analysis and discussion were also conducted for experimental results. The results show that the main leading parameters to edge-indentation of glass ceramic are cutting depth and feed rate. In order to reduce edge-indentation, it needs to use lower cutting depth and feed rate. Water-soluble cutting fluid provides a better cooling effect in the primary cutting area; it may effectively reduce the edge-indentation and improve the surface morphology of the glass ceramic. The use of ultrasonic assisted technique can effectively enhance the surface finish cleanness and reduce cutting tool wear and edge-indentation.
Abstract: A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800o C up to 1200o C. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800o C and 1000o C produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200o C gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications.
Abstract: Two finite element (FEM) models are presented in
this paper to address the random nature of the response of glued
timber structures made of wood segments with variable elastic
moduli evaluated from 3600 indentation measurements. This total
database served to create the same number of ensembles as was the
number of segments in the tested beam. Statistics of these ensembles
were then assigned to given segments of beams and the Latin
Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method was called to perform 100
simulations resulting into the ensemble of 100 deflections subjected
to statistical evaluation. Here, a detailed geometrical arrangement of
individual segments in the laminated beam was considered in the
construction of two-dimensional FEM model subjected to in fourpoint
bending to comply with the laboratory tests. Since laboratory
measurements of local elastic moduli may in general suffer from a
significant experimental error, it appears advantageous to exploit the
full scale measurements of timber beams, i.e. deflections, to improve
their prior distributions with the help of the Bayesian statistical
method. This, however, requires an efficient computational model
when simulating the laboratory tests numerically. To this end, a
simplified model based on Mindlin’s beam theory was established.
The improved posterior distributions show that the most significant
change of the Young’s modulus distribution takes place in laminae in
the most strained zones, i.e. in the top and bottom layers within the
beam center region. Posterior distributions of moduli of elasticity
were subsequently utilized in the 2D FEM model and compared with
the original simulations.
Abstract: A circularly polarized fractal boundary microstrip
antenna is presented. The sides of a square patch along x- axis, yaxis
are replaced with Minkowski and Koch curves correspondingly.
By using the fractal curves as edges, asymmetry in the structure is
created to excite two orthogonal modes for circular polarization (CP)
operation. The indentation factors of the fractal curves are optimized
for pure CP. The simulated results of the novel polyfractal antenna
Abstract: Through a proper analysis of residual strain and stress
distributions obtained at the surface of high speed milled specimens
of AA 6082–T6 aluminium alloy, the performance of an improved
indentation method is evaluated. This method integrates a special
device of indentation to a universal measuring machine. The
mentioned device allows introducing elongated indents allowing to
diminish the absolute error of measurement. It must be noted that the
present method offers the great advantage of avoiding both the
specific equipment and highly qualified personnel, and their inherent
high costs. In this work, the cutting tool geometry and high speed
parameters are selected to introduce reduced plastic damage.
Through the variation of the depth of cut, the stability of the shapes
adopted by the residual strain and stress distributions is evaluated.
The results show that the strain and stress distributions remain
unchanged, compressive and small. Moreover, these distributions
reveal a similar asymmetry when the gradients corresponding to
conventional and climb cutting zones are compared.
Abstract: Soy polyol obtained from hydroxylation of soy
epoxide with ethylene glycol were prepared as pre-polyurethane. The
two step process method were applied in the polyurethane synthesis.
The blending of soy polyol with synthetic polyol then simultaneously
carried out to TDI (2,4): MDI (4,4-) (80:20), blowing agent, and
surfactant. Ethylene glycol were not taking part in the polyurethane
synthesis. The inclusion of ethylene glycol were used as a control.
Characterization of polyurethane foam through impact resillience,
indentation deflection, and density can visualize the polyurethane