Abstract: Dimensionality reduction and feature extraction are of
crucial importance for achieving high efficiency in manipulating
the high dimensional data. Two-dimensional discriminant locality
preserving projection (2D-DLPP) and two-dimensional discriminant
supervised LPP (2D-DSLPP) are two effective two-dimensional
projection methods for dimensionality reduction and feature
extraction of face image matrices. Since 2D-DLPP and 2D-DSLPP
preserve the local structure information of the original data and
exploit the discriminant information, they usually have good
recognition performance. However, 2D-DLPP and 2D-DSLPP
only employ single-sided projection, and thus the generated low
dimensional data matrices have still many features. In this paper,
by combining the discriminant supervised LPP with the bidirectional
projection, we propose the bidirectional discriminant supervised LPP
(BDSLPP). The left and right projection matrices for BDSLPP can
be computed iteratively. Experimental results show that the proposed
BDSLPP achieves higher recognition accuracy than 2D-DLPP,
2D-DSLPP, and bidirectional discriminant LPP (BDLPP).
Abstract: The large pose discrepancy is one of the critical
challenges in face recognition during video surveillance. Due to
the entanglement of pose attributes with identity information, the
conventional approaches for pose-independent representation lack
in providing quality results in recognizing largely posed faces. In
this paper, we propose a practical approach to disentangle the pose
attribute from the identity information followed by synthesis of a face
using a classifier network in latent space. The proposed approach
employs a modified generative adversarial network framework
consisting of an encoder-decoder structure embedded with a classifier
in manifold space for carrying out factorization on the latent
encoding. It can be further generalized to other face and non-face
attributes for real-life video frames containing faces with significant
attribute variations. Experimental results and comparison with state
of the art in the field prove that the learned representation of the
proposed approach synthesizes more compelling perceptual images
through a combination of adversarial and classification losses.
Abstract: Most people see human faces in car front and back ends because of the process of pareidolia. 96 people were surveyed to see how many of them saw a face in the vehicle styling. Participants were aged 18 to 72 years. 94% of the participants saw faces in the front-end design of production models. All participants that recognized faces indicated that most styles showed some degree of an angry expression. It was found that women were more likely to see faces in inanimate objects. However, with respect to whether women were more likely to perceive anger in the vehicle design, the results need further clarification. Survey responses were correlated to the design features of vehicles to determine what cues the respondents were likely looking at when responding. Whether the features looked anthropomorphic was key to anger perception. Features such as the headlights which could represent eyes and the air intake that could represent a mouth had high correlations to trends in scores. Results are compared among models, makers, by groupings of body styles classifications for the top 12 brands sold in the US, and by year for the top 20 models sold in the US in 2016. All of the top models sold increased in perception of an angry expression over the last 20 years or since the model was introduced, but the relative change varied by body style grouping.
Abstract: Many supervised machine learning tasks require
decision making across numerous different classes. Multi-class
classification has several applications, such as face recognition, text
recognition and medical diagnostics. The objective of this article is
to analyze an adapted method of Stacking in multi-class problems,
which combines ensembles within the ensemble itself. For this
purpose, a training similar to Stacking was used, but with three
levels, where the final decision-maker (level 2) performs its training
by combining outputs from the tree-based pair of meta-classifiers
(level 1) from Bayesian families. These are in turn trained by pairs
of base classifiers (level 0) of the same family. This strategy seeks to
promote diversity among the ensembles forming the meta-classifier
level 2. Three performance measures were used: (1) accuracy, (2)
area under the ROC curve, and (3) time for three factors: (a)
datasets, (b) experiments and (c) levels. To compare the factors,
ANOVA three-way test was executed for each performance measure,
considering 5 datasets by 25 experiments by 3 levels. A triple
interaction between factors was observed only in time. The accuracy
and area under the ROC curve presented similar results, showing
a double interaction between level and experiment, as well as for
the dataset factor. It was concluded that level 2 had an average
performance above the other levels and that the proposed method
is especially efficient for multi-class problems when compared to
Abstract: This research work aims to develop a system that will analyze and identify students who indulge in malpractices/suspicious activities during the course of an academic offline examination. Automated Video Surveillance provides an optimal solution which helps in monitoring the students and identifying the malpractice event immediately. This work is organized into three modules. The first module deals with performing an impersonation check using a PCA-based face recognition method which is done by cross checking his profile with the database. The presence or absence of the student is even determined in this module by implementing an image registration technique wherein a grid is formed by considering all the images registered using the frontal camera at the determined positions. Second, detecting such facial malpractices in which a student gets involved in conversation with another, trying to obtain unauthorized information etc., based on the threshold range evaluated by considering his/her mouth state whether open or closed. The third module deals with identification of unauthorized material or gadgets used in the examination hall by training the positive samples of the object through various stages. Here, a top view camera feed is analyzed to detect the suspicious activities. The system automatically alerts the administration when any suspicious activities are identified, thereby reducing the error rate caused due to manual monitoring. This work is an improvement over our previous work published in identifying suspicious activities done by examinees in an offline examination.
Abstract: Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.
Abstract: There are many articles that attempt to establish the role of different facial fragments in face recognition. Various approaches are used to estimate this role. Frequently, authors calculate the entropy corresponding to the fragment. This approach can only give approximate estimation. In this paper, we propose to use a more direct measure of the importance of different fragments for face recognition. We propose to select a recognition method and a face database and experimentally investigate the recognition rate using different fragments of faces. We present two such experiments in the paper. We selected the PCNC neural classifier as a method for face recognition and parts of the LFW (Labeled Faces in the Wild) face database as training and testing sets. The recognition rate of the best experiment is comparable with the recognition rate obtained using the whole face.
Abstract: Human faces, as important visual signals, express a significant amount of nonverbal info for usage in human-to-human communication. Age, specifically, is more significant among these properties. Human age estimation using facial image analysis as an automated method which has numerous potential real‐world applications. In this paper, an automated age estimation framework is presented. Support Vector Regression (SVR) strategy is utilized to investigate age prediction. This paper depicts a feature extraction taking into account Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), which can be utilized for robust face recognition framework. It applies GLCM operation to remove the face's features images and Active Appearance Models (AAMs) to assess the human age based on image. A fused feature technique and SVR with GA optimization are proposed to lessen the error in age estimation.
Abstract: Automatic detection of facial feature points plays
an important role in applications such as facial feature tracking,
human-machine interaction and face recognition. The majority of
facial feature points detection methods using two-dimensional or
three-dimensional data are covered in existing survey papers. In
this article chosen approaches to the facial features detection have
been gathered and described. This overview focuses on the class
of researches exploiting facial feature points detection to represent
facial surface for two-dimensional or three-dimensional face. In
the conclusion, we discusses advantages and disadvantages of the
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.
Abstract: In this paper, we describe an application for face
recognition. Many studies have used local descriptors to characterize
a face, the performance of these local descriptors remain low by
global descriptors (working on the entire image). The application of
local descriptors (cutting image into blocks) must be able to store
both the advantages of global and local methods in the Discrete
Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. This system uses neural network
techniques. The letter method provides a good compromise between
the two approaches in terms of simplifying of calculation and
classifying performance. Finally, we compare our results with those
obtained from other local and global conventional approaches.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a comparative study of three
methods of 2D face recognition system such as: Iso-Geodesic Curves
(IGC), Geodesic Distance (GD) and Geodesic-Intensity Histogram
(GIH). These approaches are based on computing of geodesic
distance between points of facial surface and between facial curves.
In this study we represented the image at gray level as a 2D surface in
a 3D space, with the third coordinate proportional to the intensity
values of pixels. In the classifying step, we use: Neural Networks
(NN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machines
(SVM). The images used in our experiments are from two wellknown
databases of face images ORL and YaleB. ORL data base was
used to evaluate the performance of methods under conditions where
the pose and sample size are varied, and the database YaleB was used
to examine the performance of the systems when the facial
expressions and lighting are varied.
Abstract: One of the most critical decision points in the design of a
face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation.
Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant
and non-redundant facial information. In this work we propose a set of
Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments
have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, nonredundancy
and the ability to extract features either globally and locally.
To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we
conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL)
database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection.
Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial
regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The
method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for
the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.
Abstract: This paper presents two techniques, local feature
extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum
modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical
information to improve the performance of face recognition
system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub
block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this
block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using
DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high
frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the
spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non-
Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several
Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best
feature representation can be modelled using probability density
function. The recognition process is performed using maximum
likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components.
The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved
92% recognition rates.
Abstract: In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy Descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.
Abstract: A face recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame. A lot of algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Vector Quantization (VQ) based face recognition is a novel approach for face recognition. Here a new codebook generation for VQ based face recognition using Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering (IAFC) is proposed. IAFC is a fuzzy neural network which incorporates a fuzzy learning rule into a competitive neural network. The performance of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using publicly available AT&T database, Yale database, Indian Face database and a small face database, DCSKU database created in our lab. In all the databases the proposed approach got a higher recognition rate than most of the existing methods. In terms of Equal Error Rate (ERR) also the proposed codebook is better than the existing methods.
Abstract: This paper proposes a video-based framework for face recognition to identify which faces appear in a video sequence. Our basic idea is like a tracking task - to track a selection of person candidates over time according to the observing visual features of face images in video frames. Hence, we employ the state-space model to formulate video-based face recognition by dividing this problem into two parts: the likelihood and the transition measures. The likelihood measure is to recognize whose face is currently being observed in video frames, for which two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis is employed. The transition measure estimates the probability of changing from an incorrect recognition at the previous stage to the correct person at the current stage. Moreover, extra nodes associated with head nodes are incorporated into our proposed state-space model. The experimental results are also provided to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our proposed approach.
Abstract: During the past several years, face recognition in video
has received significant attention. Not only the wide range of
commercial and law enforcement applications, but also the availability
of feasible technologies after several decades of research contributes
to the trend. Although current face recognition systems have reached a
certain level of maturity, their development is still limited by the
conditions brought about by many real applications. For example,
recognition images of video sequence acquired in an open
environment with changes in illumination and/or pose and/or facial
occlusion and/or low resolution of acquired image remains a largely
unsolved problem. In other words, current algorithms are yet to be
developed. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of video-based
face recognition research. To present a comprehensive survey, we
categorize existing video based recognition approaches and present
detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category.
In addition, relevant topics such as real time detection, real time
tracking for video, issues such as illumination, pose, 3D and low
resolution are covered.
Abstract: A new approach is adopted in this paper based
on Turk and Pentland-s eigenface method. It was found that the
probability density function of the distance between the projection
vector of the input face image and the average projection vector of
the subject in the face database, follows Rayleigh distribution. In
order to decrease the false acceptance rate and increase the
recognition rate, the input face image has been recognized using two
thresholds including the acceptance threshold and the rejection
threshold. We also find out that the value of two thresholds will be
close to each other as number of trials increases. During the training,
in order to reduce the number of trials, the projection vectors for each
subject has been averaged. The recognition experiments using the
proposed algorithm show that the recognition rate achieves to
92.875% whilst the average number of judgment is only 2.56 times.