Abstract: The degrading effect due to bacterial growth on the structural integrity of concrete floor surfaces is predictable; this consequently cause development of surface micro cracks in which organisms penetrate through resulting in surface spalling. Hence, the need to develop mix design meeting the requirement of floor surfaces exposed to aggressive agent to improve certain material properties with good workability, extended lifespan and low cost is essential. In this work, tests were performed to examine the microbial activity on kitchen floor surfaces and the effect of adding admixtures. The biochemical test shows the existence of microorganisms (E.coli, Streptococcus) on newly casted structure. Of up to 6% porosity was reduced and improvement on structural integrity was observed upon adding mineral admixtures from the concrete mortar. The SEM result after 84 days of curing specimens, shows that chemical admixtures have significant role to enable retard bacterial penetration and good quality structure is achieved.
Abstract: In this study, statistical optimization design was used to study the optimum disinfection parameters using defatted crude Moringa oleifera seed extracts against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The possible optimum range of dosage, contact time and mixing rate from the OFAT study were 25mg/l to 200mg/l, 30minutes to 240 minutes and 100rpm to 160rpm respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization using faced centered central composite design showed that dosage, contact time and mixing rate were highly significant. The optimum disinfection range was 125mg/l, at contact time of 30 minutes with mixing rate of 120 rpm.
Abstract: Microbial contamination, most of which are fecal born in drinking water and food industry is a serious threat to humans. Escherichia coli is one of the most common and prevalent among them. We have developed a sensor for rapid and an early detection of contaminants, taking E.coli as a threat indicator organism. The sensor is based on co-polymerizations of aniline and formaldehyde in form of thin film over glass surface using the vacuum deposition technique. The particular doping combination of thin film with Fe-Al and Fe-Cu in different concentrations changes its non conducting properties to p- type semi conductor. This property is exploited to detect the different contaminants, believed to have the different surface charge. It was found through experiments that different microbes at same OD (0.600 at 600 nm) have different conductivity in solution. Also the doping concentration is found to be specific for attracting microbes on the basis of surface charge. This is a simple, cost effective and quick detection method which not only decreases the measurement time but also gives early warnings for highly contaminated samples.
Abstract: The development of the poultry industry in Albania is mainly based on the existence of intensive modern farms with huge capacities, which often are mixed with other forms. Colibacillosis is commonly displayed regardless of the type of breeding, delivering high mortality in poultry industry. The mechanisms with which pathogen enterobacters are able to cause the infection in poultry are not yet clear. The routine diagnose in the field, followed by isolation of E. coli and species of Salmonella genres in reference laboratories cannot lead in classification or full recognition of circulative strains in a territory, if it is not performed a differentiation among the present microorganisms in intensive farms and those in rural areas. In this study were isolated 1.496 strains of E. coli and 378 Salmonella spp. This study, presents distribution of poultry pathogenosity of E.coli and Salmonella spp., based on the usage of innovative diagnostic methods.
Abstract: Tasks of the work were study the possible E.coli
contamination in red deer meat, identify pathogenic strains from
isolated E.coli, determine their incidence in red deer meat and
determine the presence of VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes for the
pathogenic E.coli. 8 (10%) samples were randomly selected from 80
analysed isolates of E.coli and PCR reaction was performed on them.
PCR was done both on initial materials – samples of red deer meat -
and for already isolated liqueurs. Two of analysed venison samples
contain verotoxin-producing strains of E. coli. It means that this meat
is not safe to consumer. It was proven by the sequestration reaction of
E. coli and by comparison of the obtained results with the database of
microorganism genome available on the internet that the isolated
culture corresponds to region 16S rDNS of E. coli thus presenting
correctness of the microbiological methods.
Abstract: In this study, a synthetic pathway was created by
assembling genes from Clostridium butyricum and Escherichia coli
in different combinations. Among the genes were dhaB1 and dhaB2
from C. butyricum VPI1718 coding for glycerol dehydratase (GDHt)
and its activator (GDHtAc), respectively, involved in the conversion
of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). The yqhD gene
from E.coli BL21 was also included which codes for an NADPHdependent
1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme (PDORI)
reducing 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). Molecular modeling
analysis indicated that the conformation of fusion protein of YQHD
and DHAB1 was favorable for direct molecular channeling of the
intermediate 3-HPA. According to the simulation results, the yqhD
and dhaB1 gene were assembled in the upstream of dhaB2 to express
a fusion protein, yielding the recombinant strain E. coliBL21
(DE3)//pET22b+::yqhD-dhaB1_dhaB2 (strain BP41Y3). Strain
BP41Y3 gave 10-fold higher 1,3-PD concentration than E. coliBL21
(DE3)//pET22b+::yqhD-dhaB1_dhaB2 (strain BP31Y2) expressing
the recombinant enzymes simultaneously but in a non-fusion mode.
This is the first report using a gene fusion approach to enhance the
biological conversion of glycerol to the value added compound 1,3-
Abstract: Coagulation of water involves the use of coagulating
agents to bring the suspended matter in the raw water together for
settling and the filtration stage. Present study is aimed to examine the
effects of aluminum sulfate as coagulant in conjunction with Moringa
Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid on turbidity, hardness,
and bacteria in turbid water. A conventional jar test apparatus was
employed for the tests. The best removal was observed at a pH of 7
to 7.5 for all turbidities. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted
between % 80 to % 99 by Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as
coagulant aid. Dosage of coagulant and coagulant aid decreased with
increasing turbidity. In addition, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein
significantly has reduced the required dosage of primary coagulant.
Residual Al+3 in treated water were less than 0.2 mg/l and meets the
environmental protection agency guidelines. The results showed that
turbidity reduction of % 85.9- % 98 paralleled by a primary
Escherichia coli reduction of 1-3 log units (99.2 – 99.97%) was
obtained within the first 1 to 2 h of treatment. In conclusions,
Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid can be used for
drinking water treatment without the risk of organic or nutrient
release. We demonstrated that optimal design method is an efficient
approach for optimization of coagulation-flocculation process and
appropriate for raw water treatment.
Abstract: In this research saffron samples were prepared from
farms and sampling was done in four states contain : sampling from
fresh saffron of petal with forceps , sampling from fresh saffron of
petal by hands, sampling from dried sample by warm air in shadow,
sampling from dried sample which dried by dryer. Samples collected
and kept in sterile tubes and containers and carried to laboratory and
maintained until experiment. Microbial experiments were performed
to determine microbial load such as total count, Staphylococcus
aureus, coli form, E.coli, mold and yeast. Results showed that in
picking and drying stages the contamination amount increases in
saffron samples. There was a significant difference between the
microbial load of picked up saffron by forceps and by hands, and
also between dried saffron by warm air in shadow and by dryer.
Abstract: Certain tRNA synthetases have developed highly accurate molecular machinery to discriminate their cognate amino acids. Those aaRSs achieve their goal via editing reaction in the Connective Polypeptide 1 (CP1). Recently mutagenesis studies have revealed the critical importance of residues in the CP1 domain for editing activity and X-ray structures have shown binding mode of noncognate amino acids in the editing domain. To pursue molecular mechanism for amino acid discrimination, molecular modeling studies were performed. Our results suggest that aaRS bind the noncognate amino acid more tightly than the cognate one. Finally, by comparing binding conformations of the amino acids in three systems, the amino acid binding mode was elucidated and a discrimination mechanism proposed. The results strongly reveal that the conserved threonines are responsible for amino acid discrimination. This is achieved through side chain interactions between T252 and T247/T248 as well as between those threonines and the incoming amino acids.
Abstract: Many high-risk pathogens that cause disease in
humans are transmitted through various food items. Food-borne
disease constitutes a major public health problem. Assessment of the
quality and safety of foods is important in human health. Rapid and
easy detection of pathogenic organisms will facilitate precautionary
measures to maintain healthy food. The Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR) is a handy tool for rapid detection of low numbers of bacteria.
We have designed gene specific primers for most common food
borne pathogens such as Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli.
Bacteria were isolated from food samples of various food outlets and
identified using gene specific PCRs. We identified Staphylococci,
Salmonella and E.coli O157 using gene specific primers by rapid and
direct PCR technique in various food samples. This study helps us in
getting a complete picture of the various pathogens that threaten to
cause and spread food borne diseases and it would also enable
establishment of a routine procedure and methodology for rapid
identification of food borne bacteria using the rapid technique of
direct PCR. This study will also enable us to judge the efficiency of
present food safety steps taken by food manufacturers and exporters.
Abstract: The present research was designed to investigate the
anti-microbial activity of aristolochic acid from the root of
Aristolochia bracteata. From the methanolic & ethyl extract extracts
of Aristolochia bracteata aristolochic acid I was isolated and
conformed through IR, NMR & MS. The percentage purity of
aristolochic acid I was determined by UV & HPLC method. Antibacterial
activity of extracts of Aristolochia bracteata and the
isolated compound was determined by disc diffusion method. The
results reveled that the isolated aristolochic acid from methanolic
extract was more pure than the compound from ethyl acetate extract.
The various extracts (500μg/disc) of Aristolochia bracteata showed
moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition of
7-18 mm by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts, ethyl acetate
& methanol extracts were shown good anti-microbial activity and the
growth of E.coli (18 mm) was strongly inhibited. Microbial assay of
isolated compound (Aristolochic acid I) from ethyl acetate &
methanol extracts were shown good antimicrobial activity and the
zone of inhibition of both at higher concentration 50 μg/ml was
similar with the standard aristolochic acid. It may be concluded that
the isolated compound of aristolochic acid I has good anti-bacterial