Abstract: Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.
Abstract: Flow control valves comprise a silicon flexible membrane that deflects against a substrate, usually made of glass, containing pillars, an outlet hole, and anti-stiction features. However, there is a strong interest in using silicon instead of glass as substrate material, as it would simplify the process flow by allowing the use of well controlled anisotropic etching. Moreover, specific devices demanding a bending of the substrate would also benefit from the inherent outstanding mechanical strength of monocrystalline silicon. Unfortunately, direct Si-Si bonding is not easily achieved with highly structured wafers since residual stress may prevent the good adhesion between wafers. Using a thermoplastic polymer, such as parylene, as intermediate layer is not well adapted to this design as the wafer-to-wafer alignment is critical. An alternative anodic bonding method using an intermediate borosilicate layer has been successfully tested. This layer has been deposited onto the silicon substrate. The bonding recipe has been adapted to account for the presence of the SOI buried oxide and intermediate glass layer in order not to exceed the breakdown voltage. Flow control valves dedicated to infusion of viscous fluids at very high pressure have been made and characterized. The results are compared to previous data obtained using the standard anodic bonding method.
Abstract: Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.
Abstract: In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.
Abstract: Drug delivery to target human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic formulation that can deliver drugs selectively to AML cancer is hugely needed. In this work, we report the development of a nanoformulation made of polymeric-stabilized multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PMNP) loaded with the anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox) as a promising drug carrier to treat AML. [email protected] conjugates simultaneously exhibited high drug content, maximized fluorescence, and excellent release properties. Nanoparticulate uptake and cell death following addition of [email protected] were then evaluated in different types of human AML target cells, as well as on normal human cells. While the unloaded MNPs were not toxic to any of the cells, [email protected] were found to be highly toxic to the different AML cell lines, albeit at different inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values), but showed very little toxicity towards the normal cells. In comparison, free Dox showed significant potency concurrently to all the cell lines, suggesting huge potentials for the use of [email protected] as selective AML anticancer cargos. Live confocal imaging, fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed that Dox is indeed delivered to the nucleus in relatively short periods of time, causing apoptotic cell death. Importantly, this targeted payload may potentially enhance the effectiveness of the drug in AML patients and may further allow physicians to image leukemic cells exposed to [email protected] using MRI.
Abstract: Nano-sized materials present new opportunities in biology and medicine and they are used as biomedical tools for investigation, separation of molecules and cells. To achieve more effective cancer therapy, it is essential to select cancer cells exactly. This research suggests that using the antibody-functionalized nontoxic Arginine-doped magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs), has been prosperous in detection, capture, and magnetic separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in tumor tissue. In this study, A-MNPs were synthesized via a simple precipitation reaction and directly immobilized Ep-CAM EBA-1 antibodies over superparamagnetic A-MNPs for Mucin BCA-225 in breast cancer cell. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FT-IR spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These antibody-functionalized nontoxic A-MNPs were used to capture breast cancer cell. Through employing a strong permanent magnet, the magnetic separation was achieved within a few seconds. Antibody-Conjugated nontoxic Arginine-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for the future study to capture CTCs which are released from tumor tissue and for drug delivery, and these results demonstrate that the antibody-conjugated A-MNPs can be used in magnetic hyperthermia techniques for cancer treatment.
Abstract: Liposomes and pegylated liposomes were widely used as drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field since a long time. However, in the former time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was connected into phospholipid after the liposomes were already prepared. In this paper, we intend to study the possibility of applying phospholipids which already connected with PEG and then they were used to prepare liposomes. The model drug resveratrol was used because it can be applied against different diseases. Cholesterol was applied to stabilize the membrane of liposomes. The thin film technique in a laboratory scale was a preparation method. The liposomes were then characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and light microscopic techniques. The stable liposomes can be produced and the particle sizes after filtration were in nanometers. The 2- and 3-chains-PEG-phospholipid (PL) caused in smaller particle size than the 4-chains-PEG-PL. Liposomes from PL 90G and cholesterol were stable during storage at 8 °C of 56 days because the particle sizes measured by PCS were almost not changed. There was almost no leakage of resveratrol from liposomes PL 90G with cholesterol after diffusion test in dialysis tube for 28 days. All liposomes showed the sustained release during measuring time of 270 min. The maximum release amount of 16-20% was detected with liposomes from 2- and 3-chains-PEG-PL. The other liposomes gave max. release amount of resveratrol only of 10%. The release kinetic can be explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.
Abstract: Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.
Abstract: Various nanomaterials can be used as a drug delivery
vehicles in nanomedicine, called nanocarriers. They can either be
organic or inorganic, synthetic or natural-based. Although synthetic
nanocarriers are easier to produce, they can often be toxic for the
organism and thus not suitable for use in treatment. From naturalbased
nanocarriers, the most commonly used are protein cages or
viral capsids. In this work, virus bacteriophage λ was used for
delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin,
oxaliplatin and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were
obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in
medium with 0.2% maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform
and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by
ultracentrifugation at 130 000×g and 4°C for 3 h. The encapsulation
of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different
concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25
μg·mL-1). Free drug molecules were removed by filtration. The
encapsulation was verified using the absorbance for doxorubicin and
atomic absorption spectrometry for platinum cytostatics. The amount
of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the increasing
concentration of applied drug with the determination coefficient
R2=0.989 for doxorubicin; R2=0.967 for cisplatin; R2=0.989 for
carboplatin and R2=0.996 for oxaliplatin. The overall encapsulation
efficiency was calculated as 50% for doxorubicin; 8% for cisplatin;
6% for carboplatin and 10% for oxaliplatin.
Abstract: Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering
medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration
of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others.
Targeted drug delivery seeks to concentrate the medication in the
tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the
medication in the remaining tissues. This improves efficacy of the
while reducing side effects. In the present work, we investigate the
effect of magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration on the
capturing of magnetic particles transported in a stent implanted
fluidic channel. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4)
nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The
synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were added in the de-ionized (DI)
water to prepare the Fe3O4 magnetic particle suspended fluid. This
fluid is transported in a cylindrical tube of diameter 8 mm with help
of a peristaltic pump at different flow rate (25-40 ml/min). A
ferromagnetic coil of SS 430 has been implanted inside the
cylindrical tube to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles
under magnetic field. The capturing of magnetic nanoparticles was
observed at different magnetic magnetic field, flow rate and particle
concentration. It is observed that capture efficiency increases from
47-67% at magnetic field 2-5kG, respectively at particle
concentration 0.6mg/ml and at flow rate 30 ml/min. However, the
capture efficiency decreases from 65 to 44% by increasing the flow
rate from 25 to 40 ml/min, respectively. Furthermore, it is observed
that capture efficiency increases from 51 to 67% by increasing the
particle concentration from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml, respectively.
Abstract: Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening
the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and
effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal
carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the studies of
pathogenesis, biological characteristics, and therapeutic effects.
Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to
effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an
increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for
delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites.
Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is
well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to
compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin
liposomal, Lipodox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox)
anti-tumor drugs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at
left thighs were classified into three groups: control group (untreated),
Dox-treated group, and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each
group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation.
A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high
resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer
scan was performed, three-dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE)
T2-weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric
quantification. Afterwards, two-dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient
recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was
used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to
acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA
injection through the ear vein of rabbit. A series of 32 images were
acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and
muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a
period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally.
The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first
week immediately after the first MRI scan; i.e. 3 days after VX2 tumor
implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time
course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size
showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for
both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor
volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of
Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is
significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies
that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study
provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for
therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor
Abstract: It is the patient compliance and stability in
combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that
forms the core feature in present research and development of
sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound
healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile
formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity,
biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized
formulation comprised of polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl
cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric
acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric
mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through
continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring
Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized
ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated
with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a
patch form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions.
The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were
decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth
texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability
using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in
range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an
optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The
patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted
in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) up to 90
days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical
parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug
content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90
days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content
didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test.
Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and
matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation
factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed
shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.
Abstract: Cross-linked konjac glucomannan and kappa
carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using
glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect
crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac
glucomannan and its mixture with kappa carrageenan film was
immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained
cross-linked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove
the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room
temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value
of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that
glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be cross-linked
using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without
catalyst. The cross-linked films were found to be pH sensitive,
indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.
Abstract: Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell
nanoparticles have been prepared using a two-step wet chemical
approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au in
ethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of
Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9
and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell
nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral
and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer
spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in
presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4
nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid
coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized
Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show
presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.
Abstract: A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.
Abstract: Risperidone (RISP) is an antipsychotic agent and has
low water solubility and nontargeted delivery results in numerous
side effects. Hence, an attempt was made to develop SLNs hydrogel
for intranasal delivery of RISP to achieve maximum bioavailability
and reduction of side effects. RISP loaded SLNs composed of 1.65%
(w/v) lipid mass were produced by high shear homogenization (HSH)
coupled ultrasound (US) method using glycerylmonostearate (GMS)
or Imwitor 900K (solid lipid). The particles were loaded with 0.2%
(w/v) of the RISP & surface-tailored with a 2.02% (w/v) non-ionic
surfactant Tween® 80. Optimization was done using 32 factorial
design using Design Expert® software. The prepared SLNs
dispersion incorporated into Polycarbophil AA1 hydrogel (0.5%
w/v). The final gel formulation was evaluated for entrapment
efficiency, particle size, rheological properties, X ray diffraction, in
vitro diffusion, ex vivo permeation using sheep nasal mucosa and
histopathological studies for nasocilliary toxicity. The entrapment
efficiency of optimized SLNs was found to be 76 ± 2%,
Abstract: Liposome plays an important role in medical and
pharmaceutical science as e.g. nano scale drug carriers. Liposomes
are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and
an aqueous inner compartment. Magnet-driven liposome used for the
targeted delivery of drugs to organs and tissues. These liposome
preparations contain encapsulated drug components and finely
dispersed magnetic particles.
Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical
lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment that are generated in
vitro. These are useful in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradability,
and low toxicity, and can control biodistribution by changing the size,
lipid composition, and physical characteristics. Furthermore,
liposomes can entrap both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are
able to continuously release the entrapped substrate, thus being useful
drug carriers. Magnetic liposomes (MLs) are phospholipid vesicles
that encapsulate magneticor paramagnetic nanoparticles. They are
applied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts plays
an important role in the field of nanotechnology. Green-synthesized
magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been produced by treating
Iron (III) / Iron (II) chloride with the leaf extract of Datura inoxia.
The phytochemicals present in the leaf extracts act as a reducing as
well stabilizing agents preventing agglomeration, which include
flavonoids, phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides, proteins and
The magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been trapped
inside the aqueous core of the liposome prepared by reversed phase
evaporation (REV) method using oleic and linoleic acid which has
been shown to be driven under magnetic field confirming the
formation magnetic liposome (ML). Chemical characterization of
stealth magnetic liposome has been performed by breaking the
liposome and release of magnetic nanoparticles. The presence iron
has been confirmed by colour complex formation with KSCN and
UV-Vis study using spectrophotometer Cary 60, Agilent.
This magnet driven liposome using nanoparticles-protein hybrid
can be a smart vesicles for the targeted drug delivery.
Abstract: The negative Poisson’s ratios can be described in terms of models based on the geometry of the system and the way this geometry changes due to applied loads. As the Poisson’s ratio does not depend on scale hence deformation can take place at the nano to macro level the only requirement is the right combination of the geometry. Our thrust in this paper is to combine our knowledge of tailored enhanced mechanical properties of the materials having negative Poisson’s ratio with the micromachining and electrospining technology to develop a novel stent carrying a drug delivery system. Therefore, the objective of this paper includes (i) fabrication of a micromachined metal sheet tailored with structure having negative Poisson’s ratio through rotating solid squares geometry using femtosecond laser ablation; (ii) rolling fabricated structure and welding to make a tubular structure (iii) wrapping it with nanofibers of biocompatible polymer PCL (polycaprolactone) for drug delivery (iv) analysis of the functional and mechanical performance of fabricated structure analytically and experimentally. Further, as the applications concerned, tubular structures have potential in biomedical for example hollow tubes called stents are placed inside to provide mechanical support to a damaged artery or diseased region and to open a blocked esophagus thus allowing feeding capacity and improving quality of life.
Abstract: The nanotechnology offers some exciting possibilities in cancer treatment, including the possibility of destroying tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs by targeted drug delivery systems. Considerable achievements in investigations aimed at the use of ZnO nanoparticles and nanocontainers in diagnostics and antitumor therapy were described. However, there are substantial obstacles to the purposes to be achieved by the use of zinc oxide nanosize materials in antitumor therapy. Among the serious problems are the techniques of obtaining ZnO nanosize materials. The article presents a new vector delivery system for the known antitumor drug, doxorubicin in the form of polymeric (PEO, starch-NaCMC) hydrogels, in which nanosize ZnO film of a certain thickness are deposited directly on the drug surface on glass substrate by DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target. Anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of those nanosize zinc oxide composites is shown.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 Hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.