Abstract: Tribological properties that include nanoparticles are an alternative to improve the tribological behaviour of lubricating oil, which has been investigated by many researchers for the past few decades. Various nanostructures can be used as additives for tribological improvement. However, this also depends on the characteristics of the nanoparticles. In this study, tribological investigation was performed to examine the effect of CuO nanoparticles on the tribological behaviour of Syntium 800 SL 10W−30. Three parameters used in the analysis using the wear tester (piston ring) were load, revolutions per minute (rpm), and concentration. The specifications of the nanoparticles, such as size, concentration, hardness, and shape, can affect the tribological behaviour of the lubricant. The friction and wear experiment was conducted using a tribo-tester and the Response Surface Methodology method was used to analyse any improvement of the performance. Therefore, two concentrations of 40 nm nanoparticles were used to conduct the experiments, namely, 0.005 wt % and 0.01 wt % and compared with base oil 0 wt % (control). A water bath sonicator was used to disperse the nanoparticles in base oil, while a tribo-tester was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. In addition, the thermal properties of the nanolubricant were also measured. The results have shown that the thermal conductivity of the nanolubricant was increased when compared with the base oil. Therefore, the results indicated that CuO nanoparticles had improved the tribological behaviour as well as the thermal properties of the nanolubricant oil.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of
mucus production as a biomarker. This was done by exposing the
mussel Perna perna to various sublethal concentrations of Cu.
Mussels are effective as a bioindicator species as they accumulate Cu
in their tissues. Differences in mucus production rates were evaluated
at different Cu concentrations. The findings of this study indicate that
increasing Cu concentrations had a significant effect on the mucus
production rates over a 24 hour exposure. There were also significant
differences between the mucus production rates at different Cu
concentrations (p < 0.05). Thus, mucus is an essential detoxification
Abstract: The experiments were performed in a batch set up
under different concentrations of Cu (II) (0.2 g.l-1 to 0.9 g.l-1), pH (4-
6), temperatures (20oC – 40oC) with varying teak leaves powder (as
biosorbent) dosage of 0.3 g.l-1 to 0.5 g.l-1. The kinetics of interactions
were tested with pseudo first order Lagergran equation and the value
for k1 was found to be 6.909 x 10-3 min-1. The biosorption data gave
a good fit with Langmuir and Fruendlich isotherms and the Langmuir
monolayer capacity (qm) was found to be 166.78 mg. g-1. Similarly
the Freundlich adsorption capacity (Kf) was estimated as 2.49 l g-1.
The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG
were -62.42 KJ. mol-1, -0.219 KJ.mol-1 K-1 and -1.747 KJ.mol-1 at
293 K from a solution containing 0.4 g l-1 of Cu(II) showing the
biosorption to be thermodynamically favourable. These results show
good potentiality of using teak leaves as a biosorbent for the removal
of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions.
Abstract: A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling
Amberlite XAD-4 with 1-amino-2-naphthole through an azo spacer.
The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental
analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and studied for
preconcentrating of Cu (II) using flame atomic absorption
spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The optimum pH value
for sorption of the copper ions was 6.5. The resin was subjected to
evaluation through batch binding of mentioned metal ion.
Quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 0.5 M HNO3.
The sorption capacity was found 4.8 mmol.g-1 of resin for Cu (II) in
the aqueous solution. The chelating resin can be reused for 10 cycles
of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption
capacity. A recovery of 99% was obtained the metal ions with 0.5 M
HNO3 as eluting agent. The method was applied for metal ions
determination from industrial waste water sample.
Abstract: The present work presents the extraction of copper(II)
from sulphuric acid solutions with Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate
(SDDT), and six different organic diluents: Dichloromethane,
Chloroform, Carbon tetrachloride, Toluene, xylene and Cyclohexane,
were tested. The pair SDDT/Chloroform showed to be the most
selective in removing the copper cations, and hence was considered
throughout the experimental study.
The effects of operating parameters such as the initial concentration
of the extracting agent, the agitation time, the agitation speed and the
acid concentration were considered.
For an initial concentration of Cu (II) of 63 ppm in a 0.5 M sulphuric
acid solution, both with a mass of the extracting agent of 20 mg, an
extraction percentage of about 97.8 % and a distribution coefficient
of 44.42 were obtained, respectively, confirming the performance
of the SDDT-Chloroform pair.
Abstract: Many non-conventional adsorbent have been studied
as economic alternative to commercial activated carbon and mostly
agricultural waste have been introduced such as rubber leaf powder
and hazelnut shell. Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash
(MIRHA), produced from the rice husk is one of the low-cost
materials that were used as adsorbent of heavy metal. The aim of
this research was to study the feasibility of using MIRHA500 and
MIRHA800 as adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) metal ions from
aqueous solutions by the batch studies. The adsorption of Cu(II) into
MIRHA500 and MIRH800 favors Fruendlich isotherm and imply
pseudo – kinetic second order which applied chemisorptions
Abstract: An organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) was fabricated using a blended film containing Copper (II) tetrakis(4-acumylphenoxy) phthalocyanine (Tc-CuPc) along with [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Weight ratio between Tc-CuPc and PCBM was 1:1. The electrical properties of Tc-CuPc: PCBM BHJ were examined. Rectifying nature of the BHJ was displayed by current-voltage (I-V) curves, recorded in dark and at various temperatures. At low voltages, conduction was ohmic succeeded by space-charge limiting current (SCLC) conduction at higher voltages in which exponential trap distribution was dominant. Series resistance, shunt resistance, ideality factor, effective barrier height and mobility at room temperature were found to be 526 4, 482 k4, 3.7, 0.17 eV and 2×10-7 cm2V-1s-1 respectively. Temperature effect towards different BHJ parameters was observed under dark condition.