Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Influents of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Jordan

Grab samples were collected in the summer to characterize selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of PPCPs. Among all of the PPCPs analyzed, eight compounds were detected in the influent samples (1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, morphine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). However, five compounds (amphetamine, cimetidine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and sulfachloropyridazine) were not detected in collected samples (below the detection limits

Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity, but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

In this study the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhagigraecorum (Camel Thorn)to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. Histopatological investigation also confirmed that, camel thorn extract protects liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycine was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity –induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Comparative Evaluation of the Biopharmaceutical and Chemical Equivalence of the Some Commercial Brands of Paracetamol Tablets

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) tablets are popular OTC products among patients as analgesics and antipyretics. Paracetamol is marketed by a lot of suppliers around the world. The aim of the present investigation was to compare between many types of paracetamol tablets obtained from different suppliers (six brands produced by different pharmaceutical companies in middle east countries, and Panadol® manufactured in Ireland), by different quality control tests according to USP pharmacopeia.Using Non official tests-hardness and friability; official tests- disintegration, dissolution, and drug content. Additionally, evaluate the influence of temperatures 4°C, 25°C and 40°C at 75% relative humidity on the stability of the same brands in their original packaging has been conducted for two months. The results revealed that all paracetamol tablet brands complied with the official USP specifications. In conclusion, paracetamol tablets preferred to be stored at 25°C. All the tested brands being biopharmaceutically and chemically equivalent.

Cannabidiol Treatment Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

The possible therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose of acetaminophen (500mg/kg) in mice. Cannabidiol (two intraperitoneal injections, 5mg/kg, each) was given 1 hour and 12 hours following acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen administration caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels, and a significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters resulted from acetaminophen administration. Also, histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol markedly attenuated ameliorated acetaminophen-induced liver tissue damage. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect against acetaminophen hepartotoxicity which is a common clinical problem.

Protein Profiling in Alanine Aminotransferase Induced Patient cohort using Acetaminophen

Sensitive and predictive DILI (Drug Induced Liver Injury) biomarkers are needed in drug R&D to improve early detection of hepatotoxicity. The discovery of DILI biomarkers that demonstrate the predictive power to identify individuals at risk to DILI would represent a major advance in the development of personalized healthcare approaches. In this healthy volunteer acetaminophen study (4g/day for 7 days, with 3 monitored nontreatment days before and 4 after), 450 serum samples from 32 subjects were analyzed using protein profiling by antibody suspension bead arrays. Multiparallel protein profiles were generated using a DILI target protein array with 300 antibodies, where the antibodies were selected based on previous literature findings of putative DILI biomarkers and a screening process using pre dose samples from the same cohort. Of the 32 subjects, 16 were found to develop an elevated ALT value (2Xbaseline, responders). Using the plasma profiling approach together with multivariate statistical analysis some novel findings linked to lipid metabolism were found and more important, endogenous protein profiles in baseline samples (prior to treatment) with predictive power for ALT elevations were identified.

Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds by a Sequential Treatment of Ozonation Followed by Fenton Process: Influence of the Water Matrix

A sequential treatment of ozonation followed by a Fenton or photo-Fenton process, using black light lamps (365 nm) in this latter case, has been applied to remove a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds and the generated by-products both in ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The scientifictechnological innovation of this study stems from the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide from the direct ozonation of pharmaceuticals, and can later be used in the application of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The compounds selected as models were sulfamethoxazol and acetaminophen. It should be remarked that the use of a second process is necessary as a result of the low mineralization yield reached by the exclusive application of ozone. Therefore, the influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms of hydrogen peroxide concentration, individual compound concentration and total organic carbon removed. Moreover, the concentration of different iron species in solution has been measured.