Abstract: This paper considers the modelling of a non-stationary
bivariate integer-valued autoregressive moving average of order
one (BINARMA(1,1)) with correlated Poisson innovations. The
BINARMA(1,1) model is specified using the binomial thinning
operator and by assuming that the cross-correlation between the
two series is induced by the innovation terms only. Based on
these assumptions, the non-stationary marginal and joint moments
of the BINARMA(1,1) are derived iteratively by using some initial
stationary moments. As regards to the estimation of parameters of
the proposed model, the conditional maximum likelihood (CML)
estimation method is derived based on thinning and convolution
properties. The forecasting equations of the BINARMA(1,1) model
are also derived. A simulation study is also proposed where
BINARMA(1,1) count data are generated using a multivariate
Poisson R code for the innovation terms. The performance of
the BINARMA(1,1) model is then assessed through a simulation
experiment and the mean estimates of the model parameters obtained
are all efficient, based on their standard errors. The proposed model
is then used to analyse a real-life accident data on the motorway in
Mauritius, based on some covariates: policemen, daily patrol, speed
cameras, traffic lights and roundabouts. The BINARMA(1,1) model
is applied on the accident data and the CML estimates clearly indicate
a significant impact of the covariates on the number of accidents on
the motorway in Mauritius. The forecasting equations also provide
reliable one-step ahead forecasts.
Abstract: Objectives/Hypotheses: The adverse health effect potential of dietary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) has evoked much clinical interest. Therefore, we employed a 1H NMR-linked Principal Component Regression (PCR) chemometrics modelling strategy to explore relationships between data matrices comprising (1) aldehydic LOP concentrations generated in culinary oils/fats when exposed to laboratory-simulated shallow frying practices, and (2) the prior saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of such frying media (FM), together with their heating time-points at a standard frying temperature (180 oC). Methods: Corn, sunflower, extra virgin olive, rapeseed, linseed, canola, coconut and MUFA-rich algae frying oils, together with butter and lard, were heated according to laboratory-simulated shallow-frying episodes at 180 oC, and FM samples were collected at time-points of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 min. (n = 6 replicates per sample). Aldehydes were determined by 1H NMR analysis (Bruker AV 400 MHz spectrometer). The first (dependent output variable) PCR data matrix comprised aldehyde concentration scores vectors (PC1* and PC2*), whilst the second (predictor) one incorporated those from the fatty acid content/heating time variables (PC1-PC4) and their first-order interactions. Results: Structurally complex trans,trans- and cis,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, 4,5-epxy-trans-2-alkenals and 4-hydroxy-/4-hydroperoxy-trans-2-alkenals (group I aldehydes predominantly arising from PUFA peroxidation) strongly and positively loaded on PC1*, whereas n-alkanals and trans-2-alkenals (group II aldehydes derived from both MUFA and PUFA hydroperoxides) strongly and positively loaded on PC2*. PCR analysis of these scores vectors (SVs) demonstrated that PCs 1 (positively-loaded linoleoylglycerols and [linoleoylglycerol]:[SFA] content ratio), 2 (positively-loaded oleoylglycerols and negatively-loaded SFAs), 3 (positively-loaded linolenoylglycerols and [PUFA]:[SFA] content ratios), and 4 (exclusively orthogonal sampling time-points) all powerfully contributed to aldehydic PC1* SVs (p 10-3 to < 10-9), as did all PC1-3 x PC4 interaction ones (p 10-5 to < 10-9). PC2* was also markedly dependent on all the above PC SVs (PC2 > PC1 and PC3), and the interactions of PC1 and PC2 with PC4 (p < 10-9 in each case), but not the PC3 x PC4 contribution. Conclusions: NMR-linked PCR analysis is a valuable strategy for (1) modelling the generation of aldehydic LOPs in heated cooking oils and other FM, and (2) tracking their unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) triacylglycerol sources therein.
Abstract: This study was designed to find the best stochastic model (using of time series analysis) for annual extreme streamflow (peak and maximum streamflow) of Karkheh River at Iran. The Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model used to simulate these series and forecast those in future. For the analysis, annual extreme streamflow data of Jelogir Majin station (above of Karkheh dam reservoir) for the years 1958–2005 were used. A visual inspection of the time plot gives a little increasing trend; therefore, series is not stationary. The stationarity observed in Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) and Partial Auto-Correlation Function (PACF) plots of annual extreme streamflow was removed using first order differencing (d=1) in order to the development of the ARIMA model. Interestingly, the ARIMA(4,1,1) model developed was found to be most suitable for simulating annual extreme streamflow for Karkheh River. The model was found to be appropriate to forecast ten years of annual extreme streamflow and assist decision makers to establish priorities for water demand. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) codes were used to determinate of the best model for this series.
Abstract: Along with the progress of our information society,
various risks are becoming increasingly common, causing multiple social problems. For this reason, risk communications for
establishing consensus among stakeholders who have different
priorities have become important. However, it is not always easy for the decision makers to agree on measures to reduce risks based on
opposing concepts, such as security, privacy and cost. Therefore, we previously developed and proposed the “Multiple Risk Communicator" (MRC) with the following functions: (1) modeling
the support role of the risk specialist, (2) an optimization engine, and (3) displaying the computed results. In this paper, MRC program
version 1.0 is applied to the personal information leakage problem. The application process and validation of the results are discussed.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks can be used to monitor the
physical phenomenon in such areas where human approach is nearly
impossible. Hence the limited power supply is the major constraint of
the WSNs due to the use of non-rechargeable batteries in sensor
nodes. A lot of researches are going on to reduce the energy
consumption of sensor nodes. Energy map can be used with
clustering, data dissemination and routing techniques to reduce the
power consumption of WSNs. Energy map can also be used to know
which part of the network is going to fail in near future. In this paper,
Energy map is constructed using the prediction based approach.
Adaptive alpha GM(1,1) model is used as the prediction model.
GM(1,1) is being used worldwide in many applications for predicting
future values of time series using some past values due to its high
computational efficiency and accuracy.
Abstract: In this paper usefulness of quasi-Newton iteration
procedure in parameters estimation of the conditional variance
equation within BHHH algorithm is presented. Analytical solution of
maximization of the likelihood function using first and second
derivatives is too complex when the variance is time-varying. The
advantage of BHHH algorithm in comparison to the other
optimization algorithms is that requires no third derivatives with
assured convergence. To simplify optimization procedure BHHH
algorithm uses the approximation of the matrix of second derivatives
according to information identity. However, parameters estimation in
a/symmetric GARCH(1,1) model assuming normal distribution of
returns is not that simple, i.e. it is difficult to solve it analytically.
Maximum of the likelihood function can be founded by iteration
procedure until no further increase can be found. Because the
solutions of the numerical optimization are very sensitive to the
initial values, GARCH(1,1) model starting parameters are defined.
The number of iterations can be reduced using starting values close
to the global maximum. Optimization procedure will be illustrated in
framework of modeling volatility on daily basis of the most liquid
stocks on Croatian capital market: Podravka stocks (food industry),
Petrokemija stocks (fertilizer industry) and Ericsson Nikola Tesla
stocks (information-s-communications industry).
Abstract: The focus of this paper is to construct daily time series
exchange rate forecast models of Samoan Tala/USD and Tala/AUD
during the year 2008 to 2012 with neural network The performance
of the models was measured by using varies error functions such as
Root Square mean error (RSME), Mean absolute error (MAE), and
Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Our empirical findings
suggest that AR (1) model is an effective tool to forecast the
Tala/USD and Tala/AUD.
Abstract: The Random Coefficient Dynamic Regression (RCDR)
model is to developed from Random Coefficient Autoregressive
(RCA) model and Autoregressive (AR) model. The RCDR model
is considered by adding exogenous variables to RCA model. In this
paper, the concept of the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method is used
to estimate the parameter of RCDR(1,1) model. Simulation results
have shown the AIC and BIC criterion to compare the performance of
the the RCDR(1,1) model. The variables as the stationary and weakly
stationary data are good estimates where the exogenous variables
are weakly stationary. However, the model selection indicated that
variables are nonstationarity data based on the stationary data of the
Abstract: To learn about China-s future energy demand, this paper first proposed GM(1,1) model group based on recursive solutions of parameters estimation, setting up a general solving-algorithm of the model group. This method avoided the problems occurred on the past researches that remodeling, loss of information and large amount of calculation. This paper established respectively all-data-GM(1,1), metabolic GM(1,1) and new information GM (1,1)model according to the historical data of energy consumption in China in the year 2005-2010 and the added data of 2011, then modeling, simulating and comparison of accuracies we got the optimal models and to predict. Results showed that the total energy demand of China will be 37.2221 billion tons of equivalent coal in 2012 and 39.7973 billion tons of equivalent coal in 2013, which are as the same as the overall planning of energy demand in The 12th Five-Year Plan.