Abstract: In this paper, an encryption algorithm is proposed for real-time image encryption. The scheme employs a dual chaotic generator based on a three dimensional (3D) discrete Lorenz attractor. Encryption is achieved using non-autonomous modulation where the data is injected into the dynamics of the master chaotic generator. The second generator is used to permute the dynamics of the master generator using the same approach. Since the data stream can be regarded as a random source, the resulting permutations of the generator dynamics greatly increase the security of the transmitted signal. In addition, a technique is proposed to mitigate the error propagation due to the finite precision arithmetic of digital hardware. In particular, truncation and rounding errors are eliminated by employing an integer representation of the data which can easily be implemented. The simple hardware architecture of the algorithm makes it suitable for secure real-time applications.
Abstract: Industrial drives are source of serious power quality problems. In this, two typical industrial drives have been dealt with, namely, FOC induction motor drives and DTC induction motor drive. The Z-source inverter is an emerging topology of power electronic converters which is capable of buck boost characteristics. The performances of different control methods based Z-source inverters feeding these industrial drives have been investigated, in this work. The test systems have been modeled and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results obtained after carrying out these simulations have been used to draw the conclusions.
Abstract: According to the rules of quantum mechanics there is a non-vanishing probability of for an electron to tunnel through a thin insulating barrier or a thin capacitor which is not possible according to the laws of classical physics. Tunneling of electron through a thin insulating barrier or tunnel junction is a random event and the magnitude of current flowing due to the tunneling of electron is very low. As the current flowing through a Single Electron Transistor (SET) is the result of electron tunneling through tunnel junctions of its source and drain the supply voltage requirement is also very low. As a result, the power consumption across a Single Electron Transistor is ultra-low in comparison to that of a MOSFET. In this paper simulations have been done with PSPICE for an inverter built with both SETs and MOSFETs. 35mV supply voltage was used for a SET built inverter circuit and the supply voltage used for a CMOS inverter was 3.5V.
Abstract: The phase compensation method was proposed based on the concept of the damping torque analysis (DTA). It is a method for the design of a PSS (power system stabilizer) to suppress local-mode power oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. This paper presents the application of the phase compensation method for the design of a PSS in a multi-machine power system. The application is achieved by examining the direct damping contribution of the stabilizer to the power oscillations. By using linearized equal area criterion, a theoretical proof to the application for the PSS design is presented. Hence PSS design in the paper is an example of stable tending control by localized method.
Abstract: Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning
out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as
electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of
practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and
short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high
voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the
transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A
clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well
as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high
voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA
responses is validated with expert system software results.
Abstract: A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other with wireless links and without pre-existing communication infrastructure. Routing is an important issue which impacts network performance. As MANETs lack central administration and prior organization, their security concerns are different from those of conventional networks. Wireless links make MANETs susceptible to attacks. This study proposes a new trust mechanism to mitigate wormhole attack in MANETs. Different optimization techniques find available optimal path from source to destination. This study extends trust and reputation to an improved link quality and channel utilization based Adhoc Ondemand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). Differential Evolution (DE) is used for optimization.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enable new
applications and need non-conventional paradigms for the protocol
because of energy and bandwidth constraints, In WSN, sensor node’s
life is a critical parameter. Research on life extension is based on
Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) scheme,
which rotates Cluster Head (CH) among sensor nodes to distribute
energy consumption over all network nodes. CH selection in WSN
affects network energy efficiency greatly. This study proposes an
improved CH selection for efficient data aggregation in sensor
networks. This new algorithm is based on Bacterial Foraging
Optimization (BFO) incorporated in LEACH.
Abstract: High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power
transmission is employed to move large amounts of electric power.
There are several possibilities to enhance the transient stability in a
power system. One adequate option is by using the high
controllability of the HVDC if HVDC is available in the system. This
paper presents a control technique for HVDC to enhance the transient
stability. The strategy controls the power through the HVDC to help
make the system more transient stable during disturbances. Loss of
synchronism is prevented by quickly producing sufficient
decelerating energy to counteract accelerating energy gained during.
In this study, the power flow in the HVDC link is modulated with the
addition of an auxiliary signal to the current reference of the rectifier
firing angle controller. This modulation control signal is derived from
speed deviation signal of the generator utilizing a PD controller; the
utilization of a PD controller is suitable because it has the property of
fast response. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is
demonstrated with a SMIB test system.
Abstract: This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural
Network (ANN) algorithm for improving power system voltage
stability. The training data is obtained by solving several normal and
abnormal conditions using the Linear Programming technique. The
selected objective function gives minimum deviation of the reactive
power control variables, which leads to the maximization of
minimum Eigen value of load flow Jacobian. The considered reactive
power control variables are switchable VAR compensators, OLTC
transformers and excitation of generators. The method has been
implemented on a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The results
obtain from the test clearly show that the trained neural network is
capable of improving the voltage stability in power system with a
high level of precision and speed.
Abstract: This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source
Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for
two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic
distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV
system. To improve the performance of the system the number of
voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This
paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z
source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width
Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison
are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total
harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical
results are verified using MATLAB.
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of fault detection and
isolation in the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation
flying is considered. In order to design the fault detection method, an
extended Kalman filter is utilized which is a nonlinear stochastic state
estimation method. Three fault detection architectures, namely,
centralized, decentralized, and semi-decentralized are designed based
on the extended Kalman filters. Moreover, the residual generation
and threshold selection techniques are proposed for these
Abstract: In this paper, reliable consensus of multi-agent systems
with sampled-data is investigated. By using a suitable
Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and some techniques such as
Wirtinger Inequality, Schur Complement and Kronecker Product, the
results of such system are obtained by solving a set of Linear Matrix
Inequalities (LMIs). One numerical example is included to show the
effectiveness of the proposed criteria.
Abstract: Future mobile networks following 5th generation will
be characterized by one thousand times higher gains in capacity;
connections for at least one hundred billion devices; user experience
capable of extremely low latency and response times. To be close to
the capacity requirements and higher reliability, advanced
technologies have been studied, such as multiple connectivity, small
cell enhancement, heterogeneous networking, and advanced
interference and mobility management. This paper is focused on the
multiple connectivity in heterogeneous cellular networks. We
investigate the performance of coverage and user throughput in several
deployment scenarios. Using the stochastic geometry approach, the
SINR distributions and the coverage probabilities are derived in case
of dual connection. Also, to compare the user throughput enhancement
among the deployment scenarios, we calculate the spectral efficiency
and discuss our results.
Abstract: IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards provide multiple
transmission rates, which can be changed dynamically according to the
channel condition. Cooperative communications were introduced to
improve the overall performance of wireless LANs with the help of
relay nodes with higher transmission rates. The cooperative
communications are based on the fact that the transmission is much
faster when sending data packets to a destination node through a relay
node with higher transmission rate, rather than sending data directly to
the destination node at low transmission rate. To apply the cooperative
communications in wireless LAN, several MAC protocols have been
proposed. Some of them can result in collisions among relay nodes in a
dense network. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new
protocol. Relay nodes are grouped based on their transmission rates.
And then, relay nodes only in the highest group try to get channel
access. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and
shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the
previous protocol in terms of throughput and collision probability.
Abstract: At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to
control the superheating temperature (main steam temperature). As
Main Steam Temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large
time-delay and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy
cannot achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the
bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control
system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) - P cascade control
system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the
main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can
overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.
Abstract: Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no
fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy
sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to
accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with
the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can
severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost
associated with it. In this paper the impact of wind energy is
evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective
is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the
proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment
cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost, as well as any other penalty
imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind
penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the
penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a
critical question to be answered. Here we increase the penetration
from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable
limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED)
model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power
system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using
Linear Programming. The goal of this study is show how the
increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.
Abstract: Based on the experimental data, the impact of
resistance and reactance of the winding, as well as the magnetic
permeability of the magnetic circuit steel material on the value of the
electromotive force of the induction converter is investigated. The
obtained results allow estimating the main technological spreads and
determining the maximum level of the electromotive force change.
By the method of experiment planning, the expression of a
polynomial for the electromotive force which can be used to estimate
the adequacy of mathematical models to be used at the investigation
and design of induction converters is obtained.
Abstract: This paper presents two types of microstrip bandpass
filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is a tunable BPF
using planar patch resonators based on a varactor diode. The filter is
formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of
slots, in which the varactor diodes are connected. Indeed, this filter is
initially centered at 2.4 GHz; the center frequency of the tunable
patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the
bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were
compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor
losses and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning
element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations,
simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return
loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The second structure is a
BPF for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications based on multiple-mode
resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure
(DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides
in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater
than 12 dB. The proposed filters presents good performances and the
simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the
experimentation ones reported elsewhere.
Abstract: In recent years, the hair building fiber has become
popular, in other words, it is an effective method which helps people
who suffer hair loss or sparse hair since the hair building fiber is
capable to create a natural look of simulated hair rapidly. In the
markets, there are a lot of hair fiber brands that have been designed to
formulate an intense bond with hair strands and make the hair appear
more voluminous instantly. However, those products have their own
set of properties. Thus, in this report, some measurement techniques
are proposed to identify those products. Up to five different brands of
hair fiber are tested. The electrostatic and dielectric properties of the
hair fibers are macroscopically tested using design DC and high
frequency microwave techniques. Besides, the hair fibers are
microscopically analysis by magnifying the structures of the fiber
using scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the SEM photos,
the comparison of the uniformly shaped and broken rate of the hair
fibers in the different bulk samples can be observed respectively.
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology using
Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor
Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete
observability of the power system. The objective of proposed
algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power
system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs.
In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which
interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion.
This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been
applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test
systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better
observability by proposed method.