Abstract: In this paper, a design of H.263 based wireless video
transceiver is presented for wireless camera system. It uses standard
WIFI transceiver and the covering area is up to 100m. Furthermore the
standard H.263 video encoding technique is used for video
compression since wireless video transmitter is unable to transmit high
capacity raw data in real time and the implemented system is capable
of streaming at speed of less than 1Mbps using NTSC 720x480 video.
Abstract: This paper treats a design of combined control of a
single phase power factor correction (PFC). The strategy of the
proposed control is based on two parts, the first, for the outer loop
(DC output regulated voltage), and the second govern the input
current of the converter in order to achieve a sinusoidal form in phase
with the grid voltage. Two kinds of regulators are used, Fuzzy
controller for the outer loop and predictive controller for the inner
loop. The controllers are verified and discussed through simulation
under MATLAB/Simulink platform. Also an experimental
confirmation is applied. Results present a high dynamic performance
under various parameters changes.
Abstract: This paper discusses the design and analysis of a
hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The
system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an
electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this
study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system
components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar
resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing
allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical
energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy
consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel
cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation
of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system
has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the
output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of
the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual
variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been
assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82%
whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy
consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to
Abstract: In this paper, we regard as a coded transmission over a
frequency-selective channel. We plan to study analytically the
convergence of the turbo-detector using a maximum a posteriori
(MAP) equalizer and a MAP decoder. We demonstrate that the
densities of the maximum likelihood (ML) exchanged during the
iterations are e-symmetric and output-symmetric. Under the Gaussian
approximation, this property allows to execute a one-dimensional
scrutiny of the turbo-detector. By deriving the analytical terminology
of the ML distributions under the Gaussian approximation, we confirm
that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the turbo-detector
converges to the BER performance of the coded additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at high signal to noise ratio (SNR),
for any frequency selective channel.
Abstract: A mixed method by combining modified pole
clustering technique and modified cauer continued fraction is
proposed for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems.
The denominator polynomial of the reduced order model is obtained
by using modified pole clustering technique while the coefficients of
the numerator are obtained by modified cauer continued fraction.
This method generated 'k' number of reduced order models for kth
order reduction. The superiority of the proposed method has been
elaborated through numerical example taken from the literature and
compared with few existing order reduction methods.
Abstract: Higher order ΔΣ Modulator (DSM) is basically an
unstable system. The approximate conditions for stability cannot be
used for the design of a DSM for industrial applications where risk is
involved. The existing second order, single stage, single bit, unity
feedback gain , discrete DSM cannot be used for the normalized full
range (-1 to +1) of an input signal since the DSM becomes unstable
when the input signal is above ±0.55. The stability is also not
guaranteed for input signals of amplitude less than ±0.55. In the
present paper, the above mentioned second order DSM is modified
with input signal dependent forward path gain. The proposed DSM is
suitable for industrial applications where one needs the digital
representation of the analog input signal, during each sampling
period. The proposed DSM can operate almost for the full range of
input signals (-0.95 to +0.95) without causing instability, assuming
that the second integrator output should not exceed the circuit supply
voltage, ±15 Volts.
Abstract: This paper designs the four-phase Boost Converter
which overcomes the problem of high input ripple current and output
ripple voltage. Digital control is more convenient for such a topology
on basis of synchronization, phase shift operation, etc. Simulation
results are presented for open-loop and closed-loop for four phase
boost converter. This control scheme is applicable for PFC rectifiers
as well. Thus a comparative analysis based on the obtained results is
Abstract: Robotics provides answers to amputees. The most
expensive solutions surgically connect the prosthesis to nerve endings.
There are also several types of non-invasive technologies that recover
nerve messages passing through the muscles. After analyzing these
messages, myoelectric prostheses perform the desired movement.
The main goal is to avoid all surgeries, which can be heavy and offer
cheaper alternatives. For an amputee, we use valid muscles to recover
the electrical signal involved in a muscle movement. EMG sensors
placed on the muscle allows us to measure a potential difference,
which our program transforms into control for a robotic arm with two
degrees of freedom. We have shown the feasibility of non-invasive
prostheses with two degrees of freedom. Signal analysis and an
increase in degrees of freedom is still being improved.
Abstract: This paper presents reliability indices evaluation of the
rotor core magnetization of the induction motor operated as a self
excited induction generator by using probability distribution approach
and Monte Carlo simulation. Parallel capacitors with calculated
minimum capacitive value across the terminals of the induction motor
operated as a SEIG with unregulated shaft speed have been connected
during the experimental study. A three phase, 4 poles, 50Hz, 5.5 hp,
12.3A, 230V induction motor coupled with DC Shunt Motor was
tested in the electrical machine laboratory with variable reactive loads.
Based on this experimental study, it is possible to choose a reliable
induction machines operated as a SEIG for unregulated renewable
energy application in remote area or where grid is not available.
Failure density function, cumulative failure distribution function,
survivor function, hazard model, probability of success and
probability of failure for reliability evaluation of the three phase
induction motor operating as a SEIG have been presented graphically
in this paper.
Abstract: This paper presents a method for the efficient
implementation of a unidirectional or bidirectional DC/DC converter.
The DC/DC converter is used essentially for energy exchange
between the low voltage service battery and a high voltage battery
commonly found in Electric Vehicle applications. In these
applications, apart from cost, efficiency of design is an important
characteristic. A useful way to reduce the size of electronic
equipment in the electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. The
technique simplifies the mechanical complexity and maximizes the
energy usage using the latest converter control techniques. Moreover
a bidirectional battery charger for hybrid electric vehicles is also
implemented in this paper. Several simulations on the test system
have been carried out in Matlab/Simulink environment. The results
exemplify the robustness of the proposed design methodology in case
of a 1.5 KW DC-DC converter.
Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid three phase rectifier for
high power factor application. This rectifier is composed by zero
voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current transition (ZCT) boost
converter with three phase diode bridge rectifier, in parallel with a six
pulse three phase pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier.
The proposed topology is capable of high power factor with DC
output voltage regulation by providing sinusoidal input. Also, it
increases the overall efficiency of the new hybrid rectifier to 94.56%
and the total harmonic distortion of the hybrid structure varies from
0% to 16% at nominal output power. This topology was simulated in
MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the output waveforms
presented with experimental result.
Abstract: This paper aims at finding a suitable neural network
for monitoring congestion level in electrical power systems. In this
paper, the input data has been framed properly to meet the target
objective through supervised learning mechanism by defining normal
and abnormal operating conditions for the system under study. The
congestion level, expressed as line congestion index (LCI), is
evaluated for each operating condition and is presented to the NN
along with the bus voltages to represent the input and target data.
Once, the training goes successful, the NN learns how to deal with a
set of newly presented data through validation and testing
mechanism. The crux of the results presented in this paper rests on
performance comparison of a multi-layered feed forward neural
network with eleven types of back propagation techniques so as to
evolve the best training criteria. The proposed methodology has been
tested on the standard IEEE-14 bus test system with the support of
MATLAB based NN toolbox. The results presented in this paper
signify that the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm
gives best training performance of all the eleven cases considered in
this paper, thus validating the proposed methodology.
Abstract: In many communication and signal processing
systems, it is highly desirable to implement an efficient narrow-band
filter that decimate or interpolate the incoming signals. This paper
presents hardware efficient compensated CIC filter over a narrow
band frequency that increases the speed of down sampling by using
multiplierless decimation filters with polyphase FIR filter structure.
The proposed work analyzed the performance of compensated CIC
filter on the bases of the improvement of frequency response with
reduced hardware complexity in terms of no. of adders and
multipliers and produces the filtered results without any alterations.
CIC compensator filter demonstrated that by using compensation
with CIC filter improve the frequency response in passed of interest
26.57% with the reduction in hardware complexity 12.25%
multiplications per input sample (MPIS) and 23.4% additions per
input sample (APIS) w.r.t. FIR filter respectively.
Abstract: This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time
transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative
communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node
combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at
the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the
corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results,
it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order
cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER)
performance as that of the conventional scheme.
Abstract: This paper presents development of the light-weight manipulator with series elastic actuation for medical telediagnostics (USG examination). General structure of realized impedance control algorithm was shown. It was described how to perform force measurements based mainly on elasticity of manipulator links.
Abstract: Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.
Abstract: With growth of PV market in tropical region, it is necessary to investigate the performance of different types of PV technology under the tropical weather conditions. Singapore Polytechnic was funded by Economic Development Board (EDB) to set up a solar PV test-bed for the research on performance of different types of PV modules in the country. The PV test-bed installed the nine different types of PV systems that are integrated to power utility grid for monitoring and analyzing their operating performances. This paper presents the 12 months operational data of nine different PV systems and analyses on performances of installed PV systems using energy yield and performance ratio. The nine types of PV systems under test have shown their energy yields ranging from 2.67 to 3.36 kWh/kWp and their performance ratios (PRs) ranging from 70% to 88%.
Abstract: Current transformers (CTs) are used to transform large primary currents to a small secondary current. Since most standard equipment’s are not designed to handle large primary currents the CTs have an important part in any electrical system for the purpose of Metering and Protection both of which are integral in Power system. Now a days due to advancement in solid state technology, the operation times of the protective relays have come to a few cycles from few seconds. Thus, in such a scenario it becomes important to study the transient response of the current transformers as it will play a vital role in the operating of the protective devices.
This paper shows the steady state and transient behavior of current transformers and how it changes with change in connected burden. The transient and steady state response will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.
Abstract: Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.
Abstract: A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation
control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in
this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous
reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained
with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor
considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses.
MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and
a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that
the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties
compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves
the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically.
For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal
is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier
waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal,
the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular
signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM
output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index
and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The
more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower
harmonics contents and the resolution increase.