Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.
Abstract: The increasing demand of electric power is giving an
emphasis on the need for the maximum utilization of renewable
energy sources. On the other hand maintaining power quality to
satisfaction of utility is an essential requirement. In this paper the
design aspects of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated
with photovoltaic system in a distributed generation is presented. The
proposed system consist of series inverter, shunt inverter are
connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link
capacitor with Distributed Generation through a boost converter. The
primary task of UPQC is to minimize grid voltage and load current
disturbances along with reactive and harmonic power compensation.
In addition to primary tasks of UPQC, other functionalities such as
compensation of voltage interruption and active power transfer to the
load and grid in both islanding and interconnected mode have been
addressed. The simulation model is design in MATLAB/ Simulation
environment and the results are in good agreement with the published
Abstract: In recent years, the use of renewable energy resources
instead of pollutant fossil fuels and other forms has increased.
Photovoltaic generation is becoming increasingly important as a
renewable resource since it does not cause in fuel costs, pollution,
maintenance, and emitting noise compared with other alternatives
used in power applications. In this paper, Perturb and Observe and
Incremental Conductance methods are used to improve energy
conversion efficiency under different environmental conditions. PI
controllers are used to control easily DC-link voltage, active and
reactive currents. The whole system is simulated under standard
climatic conditions (1000 W/m2, 250C) in MATLAB and the
irradiance is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 300 W/m2. The use of PI
controller makes it easy to directly control the power of the grid
connected PV system. Finally the validity of the system will be
verified through the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Abstract: These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.
Abstract: This paper represents performance of particle swarm
optimisation (PSO) algorithm based integral (I) controller and
proportional-integral controller (PI) for interconnected hydro-thermal
automatic generation control (AGC) with generation rate constraint
(GRC) and Thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with
tie line. The control strategy of TCPS provides active control of
system frequency. Conventional objective function integral square
error (ISE) and another objective function considering square of
derivative of change in frequencies of both areas and change in tie
line power are considered. The aim of designing the objective
function is to suppress oscillation in frequency deviations and change
in tie line power oscillation. The controller parameters are searched
by PSO algorithm by minimising the objective functions. The
dynamic performance of the controllers I and PI, for both the
objective functions, are compared with conventionally optimized I
Abstract: This paper proposes a complementary combination scheme of affine projection algorithm (APA) filters with different order of input regressors. A convex combination provides an interesting way to keep the advantage of APA having different order of input regressors. Consequently, a novel APA which has the rapid convergence and the reduced steady-state error is derived. Experimental results show the good properties of the proposed algorithm.
Abstract: The high efficiency power management IC (PMIC) with switching device is presented in this paper. PMIC is controlled with PFM control method in order to have high power efficiency at high current level. Dynamic Threshold voltage CMOS (DT-CMOS) with low on-resistance is designed to decrease conduction loss. The threshold voltage of DT-CMOS drops as the gate voltage increase, resulting in a much higher current handling capability than standard MOSFET. PFM control circuits consist of a generator, AND gate and comparator. The generator is made to have 1.2MHz oscillation voltage. The DC-DC converter based on PFM control circuit and low on-resistance switching device is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This investigation develops a revisable method for estimating the estimate value of equivalent 10 Hz voltage flicker (DV10) of a DC Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). This study also discusses three 161kV DC EAFs by field measurement, with those results indicating that the estimated DV10 value is significantly smaller than the survey value. The key point is that the conventional means of estimating DV10 is inappropriate. There is a main cause as the assumed Qmax is too small.
Although DC EAF is regularly operated in a constant MVA mode, the reactive power variation in the Main Transformer (MT) is more significant than that in the Furnace Transformer (FT). A substantial difference exists between estimated maximum reactive power fluctuation (DQmax) and the survey value from actual DC EAF operations. However, this study proposes a revisable method that can obtain a more accurate DV10 estimate than the conventional method.
Abstract: Time base maintenance (TBM) is conventionally applied by the power utilities to maintain circuit breakers (CBs), transformers, bus bars and cables, which may result in under maintenance or over maintenance. As information and communication technology (ICT) industry develops, the maintenance policies of many power utilities have gradually changed from TBM to condition base maintenance (CBM) to improve system operating efficiency, operation cost and power supply reliability. This paper discusses the feasibility of using intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) to construct a CB CBM management platform. CBs in power substations can be monitored using IEDs with additional logic configuration and wire connections. The CB monitoring data can be sent through intranet to a control center and be analyzed and integrated by the Elipse Power Studio software. Finally, a human-machine interface (HMI) of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can be designed to construct a CBM management platform to provide maintenance decision information for the maintenance personnel, management personnel and CB manufacturers.
Abstract: Tidal power can play a vital role in integrating as new source of renewable energy to the off-grid power connection in isolated areas, namely Sandwip, in Bangladesh. It can reduce the present energy crisis and improve the social, environmental and economic perspective of Bangladesh. Tidal energy is becoming popular around the world due to its own facilities. The development of any country largely depends on energy sector improvement. Lack of energy sector is because of hampering progress of any country development, and the energy sector will be stable by only depend on sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy having environmental friendly is the only sustainable solution of secure energy system. Bangladesh has a huge potential of tidal power at different locations, but effective measures on this issue have not been considered sincerely. This paper summarizes the current energy scenario, and Bangladesh can produce power approximately 53.19 MW across the country to reduce the growing energy demand utilizing tidal energy as well as it is shown that Sandwip is highly potential place to produce tidal power, which is estimated approximately 16.49 MW by investing only US $10.37 million. Besides this, cost management for tidal power plant has been also discussed.
Abstract: The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.
Abstract: Non-synchronous breakage or line failure in power
systems with light or no loads can lead to core saturation in
transformers or potential transformers. This can cause component and
capacitance matching resulting in the formation of resonant circuits,
which trigger ferroresonance. This study employed a wavelet
transform for the detection of ferroresonance. Simulation results
demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.
Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of simultaneous placement of DGs and smart meters (SMs), on voltage profile improvement in active distribution networks (ADNs). A substantial center of attention has recently been on responsive loads initiated in power system problem studies such as distributed generations (DGs). Existence of responsive loads in active distribution networks (ADNs) would have undeniable effect on sizing and siting of DGs. For this reason, an optimal framework is proposed for sizing and siting of DGs and SMs in ADNs. SMs are taken into consideration for the sake of successful implementing of demand response programs (DRPs) such as direct load control (DLC) with end-side consumers. Looking for voltage profile improvement, the optimization procedure is solved by genetic algorithm (GA) and tested on IEEE 33-bus distribution test system. Different scenarios with variations in the number of DG units, individual or simultaneous placing of DGs and SMs, and adaptive power factor (APF) mode for DGs to support reactive power have been established. The obtained results confirm the significant effect of DRPs and APF mode in determining the optimal size and site of DGs to be connected in ADN resulting to the improvement of voltage profile as well.
Abstract: In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred
with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have
been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation
importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the
network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing
harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many
methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active
power filters which provide the compensation. These methods
efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this
reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier
analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF)
control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for
both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation
in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have
been compared for each two methods.
Abstract: The application of today's semiconductor transistors in high power UHF DVB-T linear amplifiers has evolved significantly by utilizing LDMOS technology. This fact provides engineers with the option to design a single transistor signal amplifier which enables output power and linearity that was unobtainable previously using bipolar junction transistors or later type first generation MOSFETS. The quiescent current stability in terms of thermal variations of the LDMOS guarantees a robust operation in any topology of DVB-T signal amplifiers. Otherwise, progressively uncontrolled heat dissipation enhancement on the LDMOS case can degrade the amplifier’s crucial parameters in regards to the gain, linearity and RF stability, resulting in dysfunctional operation or a total destruction of the unit. This paper presents one more sophisticated approach from the traditional biasing circuits used so far in LDMOS DVB-T amplifiers. It utilizes a microprocessor control technology, providing stability in topologies where IDQ must be perfectly accurate.
Abstract: Modelling and simulation provide effective way to
acquire engineering experience. An active approach to modelling and
simulation proposed in the paper involves, beside the compulsory
part directed by the traditional step-by-step instructions, the new
optional part basing on the human’s habits to design thus stimulating
the efforts towards success in active learning. Computer exercises as
a part of engineering curriculum incorporate a set of effective
activities. In addition to the knowledge acquired in theoretical
training, the described educational arrangement helps to develop
problem solutions, computation skills, and experimentation
performance along with enhancement of practical experience and
Abstract: This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity.
The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.
Abstract: This paper deals with the assessment of faulted area around an industrial customer connected to a particular electric grid that will cause a certain sag magnitude on this customer. The faulted (critical or exposed) area’s length is calculated by adding all line lengths in the neighborhood of the critical node (customer). The applied method is the so-called Method of Critical Distances. By using advanced short-circuit analysis, the Critical Area can be accurately calculated for radial and meshed power networks due to all symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. For the demonstration of the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, a study case is used.
Abstract: The increasing penetration of Distributed Generation and storage connected to the distribution network via PWM converters increases the possibility of a DC-component (offset) in voltage or current flowing into the grid. This occurs when even harmonics are present in the network voltage. DC-components can affect the operation and safety of several grid components. Therefore, an investigation of the way they are produced is important in order to take appropriate measures for their elimination. Further research on DC-components that appear on output voltage of converters is performed for different parameters of PWM technique and characteristics of even harmonics.
Abstract: This paper presents the use of phasor bond graphs to
obtain the steady-state behavior of a synchronous generator. The
phasor bond graph elements are built using 2D multibonds, which
represent the real and imaginary part of the phasor. The dynamic
bond graph model of a salient-pole synchronous generator is showed,
and verified viz. a sudden short-circuit test. The reduction of the
dynamic model into a phasor representation is described. The
previous test is executed on the phasor bond graph model, and its
steady-state values are compared with the dynamic response. Besides,
the widely used power (torque)-angle curves are obtained by means
of the phasor bond graph model, to test the usefulness of this model.