Abstract: A novel design technique employing CMOS Current
Feedback Operational Amplifier (CFOA) is presented. The feature of
consumption very low power in designing pseudo-OTA is used to
decreasing the total power consumption of the proposed CFOA. This
design approach applies pseudo-OTA as input stage cascaded with
buffer stage. Moreover, the DC input offset voltage and harmonic
distortion (HD) of the proposed CFOA are very low values compared
with the conventional CMOS CFOA due to the symmetrical input
stage. P-Spice simulation results are obtained using 0.18μm MIETEC
CMOS process parameters and supply voltage of ±1.2V, 50μA
biasing current. The p-spice simulation shows excellent improvement
of the proposed CFOA over existing CMOS CFOA. Some of these
performance parameters, for example, are DC gain of 62. dB, openloop
gain bandwidth product of 108 MHz, slew rate (SR+) of
+71.2V/μS, THD of -63dB and DC consumption power (PC) of
Abstract: Cooperative communication provides transmit diversity, even when, due to size constraints, mobile units cannot accommodate multiple antennas. A versatile cooperation method called coded cooperation has been developed, in which cooperation is implemented through channel coding with a view to controlling the errors inherent in wireless communication. In this work we evaluate the performance of coded cooperation in flat Rayleigh fading environment using a concept known as the pair wise error probability (PEP). We derive the PEP for a flat fading scenario in coded cooperation and then compare with the signal-to-noise ratio of the users in the network. Results show that an increase in the SNR leads to a decrease in the PEP. We also carried out simulations to validate the result.
Abstract: In order to further understand the behavior of PEM fuel cell and optimize their performance, it is necessary to perform measurements in real time. The internal impedance measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is of great importance. In this work, we present the impedance measurement method of a PEM fuel cell by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method and the realization steps of electronic load for this measuring technique implementation. The theoretical results are obtained from the simulation of software PSPICE® and experimental tests are carried out using the Ballard Nexa™ PEM fuel cell system.
Abstract: This paper deals with bifurcation analyses in current programmed DC/DC Boost converter and exhibition of chaotic behavior. This phenomenon occurs due to variation of a set of the studied circuit parameters (input voltage and a reference current). Two different types of bifurcation paths have been observed as part as part of another bifurcation arising from variation of suitable chosen parameter.
Abstract: An adder is one of the most integral component of a digital system like a digital signal processor or a microprocessor. Being an extremely computationally intensive part of a system, the optimization for speed and power consumption of the adder is of prime importance. In this paper we have designed a 1 bit full adder cell based on dynamic TSPC logic to achieve high speed operation. A high threshold voltage sleep transistor is used to reduce the static power dissipation in standby mode. The circuit is designed and simulated in TSPICE using TSMC 180nm CMOS process. Average power consumption, delay and power-delay product is measured which showed considerable improvement in performance over the existing full adder designs.
Abstract: Electromagnetic forces on three-phase five-wire (3P5W) busbar system is investigated under three-phase short-circuits current. The conductor busbar placed in compact galvanized steel enclosure is in the rectangular shape. Transient analysis from Opera-2D is carried out to develop the model of three-phase short-circuits current in the system. The result of the simulation is compared with the calculation result, which is obtained by applying the theories of Biot Savart’s law and Laplace equation. Under this analytical approach, the moment of peak short-circuit current is taken into account. The effect upon geometrical arrangement of the conductor and the present of the steel enclosure are considered by the theory of image. The result depict that the electromagnetic force due to the transient short-circuit from simulation is agreed with the calculation.
Abstract: Nonlinearity is the inherent characteristics of all the industrial processes. The Classical control approach used for a generation often fails to show better results particularly for non-linear systems and in the systems, whose parameters changes over a period of time for a variety of reasons. Alternatively, adaptive control strategies provide very good performance. The Model Reference Adaptive Control based on Lyapunov stability analysis and classical PI control strategies are designed and evaluated for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which shows appreciable dynamic nonlinear characteristics.
Abstract: This paper presents MOSFET based analog to digital converter which is simple in design, has high resolution, and conversion rate better than dual slope ADC. It has no DAC which will limit the performance, no error in conversion, can operate for wide range of inputs and never become unstable. One of the industrial applications, where the proposed high resolution MOSFET ADC can be used is, for the positioning of control valves in a multi channel data acquisition and control system (DACS), using stepper motors as actuators of control valves. It is observed that in a DACS having ten control valves, 0.02% of positional accuracy of control valves can be achieved with the data update period of 250ms and with stepper motors of maximum pulse rate 20 Kpulses per sec. and minimum pulse width of 2.5 μsec. The reported accuracy so far by other authors is 0.2%, with update period of 255 ms and with 8 bit DAC. The accuracy in the proposed configuration is limited by the available precision stepper motor and not by the MOSFET based ADC.
Abstract: As the frequency of operation has attained a range of GHz and signal rise time continues to increase interconnect technology is suffering due to various high frequency effects as well as ground bounce problem. In some recent studies a high frequency effect i.e. skin effect has been modeled and its drawbacks have been discussed. This paper strives to make an impression on the advantage side of modeling skin effect for interconnect line. The proposed method has considered a CMOS with RC interconnect. Delay and noise considering ground bounce problem and with skin effect are discussed. The simulation results reveal an advantage of considering skin effect for minimization of ground bounce problem during the working of the model. Noise and delay variations with temperature are also presented.
Abstract: Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).
Abstract: Power quality in terms of power factor, THD and precisely regulated output voltage are the major key factors for efficient operation of power electronic converters. This paper presents an easy and effective active wave shaping control scheme for the pulsed input current drawn by the uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier thereby achieving power factor nearer to unity and also satisfying the THD specifications. It also regulates the output DC-bus voltage. CCM boost power factor correction with constant frequency operation features smaller inductor current ripple resulting in low RMS currents on inductor and switch thus leading to low electromagnetic interference. The objective of this work is to develop an active PFC control circuit using CCM boost converter implementing variable duty cycle control. The proposed scheme eliminates inductor current sensing requirements yet offering good performance and satisfactory results for maintaining the power quality. Simulation results have been presented which covers load changes also.
Abstract: In the literature, surfing technique has been proposed for single ended wave-pipelined serial interconnects to increase the data transfer rate. In this paper a novel surfing technique is proposed for differential wave-pipelined serial interconnects, which uses a 'Controllable inverter pair' for surfing. To evaluate the efficiency of this technique, a transceiver with transmitter, receiver, delay locked loop (DLL) along with 40mm metal 4 interconnects using the proposed surfing technique is implemented in UMC 180nm technology and their performances are studied through post layout simulations. From the study, it is observed that the proposed scheme permits 1.875 times higher data transmission rate compared to the single ended scheme whose maximum data transfer rate is 1.33 GB/s. The proposed scheme has the ability to receive the correct data even with stuck-at-faults in the complementary line.
Abstract: In this article, coordinated tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) with static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) in multi-machine power system is proposed. The design of proposed coordinated damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem and the controller gains are optimized instantaneously using advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization (AAPSO). The objective function is framed with the inter-area speed deviations of the generators and it is minimized using AAPSO to improve the dynamic stability of power system under severe disturbance. The proposed coordinated controller performance is evaluated under a wide range of system operating conditions with three-phase fault disturbance. Using time domain simulations the damping characteristics of proposed controller is compared with individually tuned PSS, SVC and TCSC controllers. Finally, the real-time simulations are carried out in Opal-RT hardware simulator to synchronize the proposed controller performance in the real world.
Abstract: Novel compact expressions for propagation constant (γ) of SWCNT and bundled SWCNTs interconnect, in terms of physical parameters such as length, operating frequency and diameter of CNTs is proposed in this work. These simplified expressions enable physical insight and accurate estimation of signal attenuation level and its phase change at any length for a particular frequency. The proposed expressions are validated against SPICE simulated results of lumped as well as distributed equivalent electrical RLC nets of CNT interconnect. These expressions also help us to evaluate the cut off frequencies of SWCNTs for different interconnect lengths.
Abstract: This work presents an approach for AC load flow based centralized model for congestion management in the forward markets. In this model, transaction maximizes its profit under the limits of transmission line capacities allocated by Independent System Operator (ISO). The voltage and reactive power impact of the system are also incorporated in this model. Genetic algorithm is used to solve centralized congestion management problem for multilateral transactions. Results obtained for centralized model using genetic algorithm is compared with Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) technique. The statistical performances of various algorithms such as best, worst, mean and standard deviations of social welfare are given. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the better performance of genetic algorithm over SQP.
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to elimination of the problem of sensitivity to parameter variation of induction motor drive. The proposed sensorless strategy is based on an algorithm permitting a better simultaneous estimation of the rotor speed and the stator resistance including an adaptive mechanism based on the lyaponov theory. To study the reliability and the robustness of the sensorless technique to abnormal operations, some simulation tests have been performed under several cases.
The proposed sensorless vector control scheme showed a good performance behavior in the transient and steady states, with an excellent disturbance rejection of the load torque.
Abstract: This paper proposes a swarm intelligence method that yields optimal Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller parameters of a power system stabilizer (PSS) in a single machine infinite bus system. The proposed method utilizes the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm approach to generate the optimal tuning parameters. The paper is modeled in the MATLAB Simulink Environment to analyze the performance of a synchronous machine under several load conditions. At the same operating point, the PID-PSS parameters are also tuned by Ziegler-Nichols method. The dynamic performance of proposed controller is compared with the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method of PID tuning controller to demonstrate its advantage. The analysis reveals the effectiveness of the proposed PSO based PID controller.
Abstract: This paper realized the 2-DOF controller structure for first order with time delay systems. The co-prime factorization is used to design observer based controller K(s), representing one degree of freedom. The problem is based on H∞ norm of mixed sensitivity and aims to achieve stability, robustness and disturbance rejection. Then, the other degree of freedom, prefilter F(s), is formulated as fixed structure polynomial controller to meet open loop processing of reference model. This model matching problem is solved by minimizing integral square error between reference model and proposed model. The feedback controller and prefilter designs are posed as optimization problem and solved using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). To show the efficiency of the designed approach different variety of processes are taken and compared for analysis.
Abstract: In this article design and optimization of square printed monopole antenna for wireless application is proposed. Theory of characteristics mode (TCM) is used for analysis of current modes on the antenna. TCM analysis shows that beveled ground plane improves the impedance bandwidth. The antenna operates over the frequency range from 1.860 GHz to 5 GHz for a VSWR ≤ 2, covering the GSM (1900-1990MHz), IMT-2000(1920-2170MHz), Bluetooth (2.400-2484 MHz) and lower band of ultrawideband (UWB). Stable radiation pattern shows minimal pulse distortion. The radiation pattern is omni-directional along the H-plane and figure of eight along the E-plane. Size of proposed antenna is 39 mm x 29 mm x 1.6mm. Antenna is simulated using CAD FEKO suite (6.2) using method of moment. A prototype antenna is fabricated using FR4 dielectric substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4 and loss tangent of 0.02 to validate the simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna. Measured results are in good agreement with simulated results.
Abstract: This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beamforming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.