Abstract: In this treatise we will study the capability of static
compensator for reactive power to stabilize sheen voltage with motor
loading on power networks system. We also explain the structure and main function of STATCOM and the method to control it using STATCOM transformer current to simultaneously predict after
telling about the necessity of FACTS tools to compensate in power networks. Then we study topology and controlling system to stabilize
voltage during start of inductive motor. The outcome of stimulat by MATLAB software supports presented controlling idea and
system in the treatise.
Abstract: Topological changes in mobile ad hoc networks
frequently render routing paths unusable. Such recurrent path failures
have detrimental effects on quality of service. A suitable technique
for eliminating this problem is to use multiple backup paths between
the source and the destination in the network. This paper proposes an
effective and efficient protocol for backup and disjoint path set in ad
hoc wireless network. This protocol converges to a highly reliable
path set very fast with no message exchange overhead. The paths
selection according to this algorithm is beneficial for mobile ad hoc
networks, since it produce a set of backup paths with more high
reliability. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the
performance of our algorithm in terms of route numbers in the path
set and its reliability. In order to acquire link reliability estimates, we
use link expiration time (LET) between two nodes.
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to investigate the
enhancement of power system stability via coordinated tuning of
Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) in a multi-machine power system.
The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an
optimization problem. Chaotic catfish particle swarm optimization
(C-Catfish PSO) algorithm is used to minimize the ITAE objective
function. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a two-area, 4-
machines system. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is
verified on this system under different operating conditions and
applying a three-phase fault. The nonlinear time-domain simulation
results and some performance indices show the effectiveness of the
proposed controller in damping power system oscillations and this
novel optimization algorithm is compared with particle swarm
Abstract: The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of
natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model
is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of
ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section
and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel
instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase
modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and
recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core
components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the
same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the
relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels
are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.
Abstract: There are various solutions for improving existing overhead line systems with the general purpose of increasing their limited capacity. The capacity reserve of the existing overhead lines is an important problem that must be considered from different aspects. The paper contains a comparative analysis of the mechanical and thermal limitations of an existing overhead line based on certain calculation conditions characterizing the examined variants. The methodology of the proposed estimation of the permissible conductor temperature and maximum load current is described in detail. The transmission line model consists of specific information of an existing overhead line of the Latvian power network. The main purpose of the simulation tasks is to find an additional capacity reserve by using accurate mathematical models. The results of the obtained data are presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a physics-based model for the
high-voltage fast recovery diodes. The model provides a good
trade-off between reverse recovery time and forward voltage drop
realized through a combination of lifetime control and emitter
efficiency reduction techniques. The minority carrier lifetime can be
extracted from the reverse recovery transient response and forward
characteristics. This paper also shows that decreasing the amount of
the excess carriers stored in the drift region will result in softer
characteristics which can be achieved using a lower doping level. The
developed model is verified by experiment and the measurement data
agrees well with the model.
Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable
quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the
received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded
systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides
initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization
strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of
bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a
2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we
evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit
(CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on
approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity
Abstract: A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain
current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational
Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors
biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC
power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable
output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The
functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in
0.35μm CMOS process technology.
Abstract: It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.
Abstract: This paper describes a novel optimized JTAG interface circuit between a JTAG controller and target IC. Being able to access JTAG using only one or two pins, this circuit does not change the original boundary scanning test frequency of target IC. Compared with the traditional JTAG interface which based on IEEE std. 1149.1, this reduced pin technology is more applicability in pin limited devices, and it is easier to control the scale of target IC for the designer.
Abstract: Renewable energy resources are inexhaustible, clean as compared with conventional resources. Also, it is used to supply regions with no grid, no telephone lines, and often with difficult accessibility by common transport. Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are the most important application of renewable energy. Neural control is a branch of the general field of intelligent control, which is based on the concept of artificial intelligence. This paper presents the mathematical modeling of satellite earth station power system which is required for simulating the system.Aswan is selected to be the site under consideration because it is a rich region with solar energy. The complete power system is simulated using MATLAB–SIMULINK.An artificial neural network (ANN) based model has been developed for the optimum operation of earth station power system. An ANN is trained using a back propagation with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The best validation performance is obtained for minimum mean square error. The regression between the network output and the corresponding target is equal to 96% which means a high accuracy. Neural network controller architecture gives satisfactory results with small number of neurons, hence better in terms of memory and time are required for NNC implementation. The results indicate that the proposed control unit using ANN can be successfully used for controlling the satellite earth station power system.
Abstract: A methodology to design a nonlinear observer in a
bond graph approach is proposed. The class of nonlinear observer
with multivariable nonlinearities is considered. A junction structure
of the bond graph observer is proposed. The proposed methodology
to an electrical transformer and a DC motor including the nonlinear
saturation is applied. Nonlinear observers for the transformer and DC
motor based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain
are proposed. In order to show the saturation effects on the
transformer and DC motor, simulation results are obtained. Finally,
the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true
states is achieved.
Abstract: Robust nonlinear integrated navigation of GPS and
low cost MEMS is a hot topic of research these days. A robust filter
is required to cope up with the problem of unpredictable
discontinuities and colored noises associated with low cost sensors.
H∞ filter is previously used in Extended Kalman filter and Unscented
Kalman filter frame. Unscented Kalman filter has a problem of
Cholesky matrix factorization at each step which is a very unstable
operation. To avoid this problem in this research H∞ filter is
designed in Square root Unscented filter framework and found 50%
more robust towards increased level of colored noises.
Abstract: The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.
Abstract: This article presents a resistorless current-mode firstorder allpass filter based on second generation current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency can be electronically controlled via the input bias current: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 2 CCCIIs and single grounded capacitor, without any external resistors and component matching requirements. Consequently, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. Low input and high output impedances of the proposed configuration enable the circuit to be cascaded in current-mode without additional current buffers. The PSpice simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The application example as a current-mode quadrature oscillator is included.
Abstract: The analysis of electromagnetic environment using
deterministic mathematical models is characterized by the
impossibility of analyzing a large number of interacting network
stations with a priori unknown parameters, and this is characteristic,
for example, of mobile wireless communication networks. One of the
tasks of the tools used in designing, planning and optimization of
mobile wireless network is to carry out simulation of electromagnetic
environment based on mathematical modelling methods, including
computer experiment, and to estimate its effect on radio
communication devices. This paper proposes the development of a
statistical model of electromagnetic environment of a mobile
wireless communication network by describing the parameters and
factors affecting it including the propagation channel and their
Abstract: We consider a two-way relay network where two sources exchange information. A relay helps the two sources exchange information using the decode-and-XOR-forward protocol. We investigate the power minimization problem with minimum rate constraints. The system needs two time slots and in each time slot the required rate pair should be achievable. The power consumption is minimized in each time slot and we obtained the closed form solution. The simulation results confirm that the proposed power allocation scheme consumes lower total power than the conventional schemes.
Abstract: Public awareness towards green energy are on the rise and this can be prove by many product being manufactured or prerequired to be made as energy saving devices mainly to save consumer from spending more on utility billing. These schemes are popular nowadays and many homemade appliances are turned into energy saving gadget which attracts the attention of consumers. Knowing the public demands and pattern towards purchasing home appliances thus the idea of “energy saving suction hood (ESSH)" is proposed. The ESSH can be used in many places that require smoke ventilation or even to reduce the room temperature as many conventional suction hoods (CSH) do, but this device works automatically by the usage of sensors that detects the smoke/temperature and automatically spins the exhaust fan. As it turns, the mechanical rotation rotates the AC generator which is coupled together with the fan and then charges the battery. The innovation of this product is, it does not rely on the utility supply as it is also hook up with a solar panel which also charges the battery, Secondly, it generates energy as the exhaust fan mechanically rotates. Thirdly, an energy loop back feature is introduced to this system which will supply for the ventilator fan. Another major innovation is towards interfacing this device with an in house production of generator. This generator is produced by proper design on stator as well as rotor to reduce the losses. A comparison is made between the ESSH and the CSH and result shows that the ESSH saves 172.8kWh/year of utility supply which is used by CSH. This amount of energy can save RM 3.14 from monthly utility bill and a total of RM 37.67 per year. In fact this product can generate 175 Watt of power from generator(75W) and solar panel(100W) that can be used either to supply other household appliances and/or to loop back to supply the fans motor. The innovation of this system is essential for future production of other equipment by using the loopback power method and turning most equipment into a standalone system.
Abstract: This paper describes a novel monitoring scheme to
minimize total active power in digital circuits depend on the demand
frequency, by adjusting automatically both supply voltage and
threshold voltages based on circuit operating conditions such as
temperature, process variations, and desirable frequency. The delay
monitoring results, will be control and apply so as to be maintained at
the minimum value at which the chip is able to operate for a given
clock frequency. Design details of power monitor are examined using
simulation framework in 32nm BTPM model CMOS process.
Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms
of its power consumption is about 40 μW for 32nm technology;
moreover the results show that our proposed circuit design is not far
sensitive to the temperature variations and also process variations.
Besides, uses the simple blocks which offer good sensitivity, high
speed, the continuously feedback loop. This design provides up to
40% reduction in power consumption in active mode.
Abstract: Wireless ad hoc nodes are freely and dynamically
self-organize in communicating with others. Each node can act as
host or router. However it actually depends on the capability of
nodes in terms of its current power level, signal strength, number
of hops, routing protocol, interference and others. In this research,
a study was conducted to observe the effect of hops count over
different network topologies that contribute to TCP Congestion
Control performance degradation. To achieve this objective, a
simulation using NS-2 with different topologies have been
evaluated. The comparative analysis has been discussed based on
standard observation metrics: throughput, delay and packet loss
ratio. As a result, there is a relationship between types of topology
and hops counts towards the performance of ad hoc network. In
future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the
effect of different error rate and background traffic over same