Abstract: The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.
Abstract: The current-voltage characteristics of a PtSi/p-Si
Schottky barrier diode was measured at the temperature of 85 K and
from the forward bias region of the I-V curve, the electrical
parameters of the diode were measured by three methods. The results
obtained from the two methods which considered the series resistance
were in close agreement with each other and from them barrier height
(), ideality factor (n) and series resistance () were found to be
0.2045 eV, 2.877 and 14.556 K respectively. By measuring the I-V
characteristics in the temperature range of 85-136 K the electrical
parameters were observed to have strong dependency on temperature.
The increase of barrier height and decrease of ideality factor with
increasing temperature is attributed to the existence of barrier height
inhomogeneities in the silicide-semiconductor structure.
Abstract: We evaluate the average energy consumption per bit
in Optical Packet Switches equipped with BENES switching fabric
realized in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) technology. We
also study the impact that the Amplifier Spontaneous Emission
(ASE) noise generated by a transmission system has on the power
consumption of the BENES switches due to the gain saturation of the
SOAs used to realize the switching fabric. As a matter of example for
32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal
to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 2, 34 · 10-1 nJ/bit
and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems
Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.
Abstract: This paper presents a vertical silicon nanowire n- MOSFET integrated with a CMOS-compatible fully-silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 gate. Devices with nanowire diameter of 50nm show good electrical performance (SS < 70mV/dec, DIBL < 30mV/V, Ion/Ioff > 107). Most significantly, threshold voltage tunability of about 0.2V is shown. Although threshold voltage remains low for the 50nm diameter device, it is expected to become more positive as nanowire diameter reduces.
Abstract: A set of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based methods
for the design of an effective system of speech recognition of
numerals of Assamese language captured under varied recording
conditions and moods is presented here. The work is related to
the formulation of several ANN models configured to use Linear
Predictive Code (LPC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and
other features to tackle mood and gender variations uttering numbers
as part of an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system in
Assamese. The ANN models are designed using a combination of
Self Organizing Map (SOM) and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP)
constituting a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) block trained in a
cooperative environment to handle male and female speech samples
of numerals of Assamese- a language spoken by a sizable population
in the North-Eastern part of India. The work provides a comparative
evaluation of several such combinations while subjected to handle
speech samples with gender based differences captured by a microphone
in four different conditions viz. noiseless, noise mixed, stressed
Abstract: The economic and stable operation was affected
seriously by coal quality disturbance for power plants. Based on model
analysis, influence of the disturbance can be considered as gain change
of control system. Power capability coefficient of coal was
constructed to inhibit it. Accuracy of the coefficient was verified by
operating data. Then coal quality disturbance free system based on
gain scheduling was designed for coordinated control system.
Simulation showed that, the strategy improved control quality
obviously, and inhibited the coal quality disturbance.
Abstract: Three similar negative differential resistance (NDR)
profiles with both high peak to valley current density ratio (PVCDR)
value and high peak current density (PCD) value in unity resonant
tunneling electronic circuit (RTEC) element is developed in this paper.
The PCD values and valley current density (VCD) values of the three
NDR curves are all about 3.5 A and 0.8 A, respectively. All PV values
of NDR curves are 0.40 V, 0.82 V, and 1.35 V, respectively. The VV
values are 0.61 V, 1.07 V, and 1.69 V, respectively. All PVCDR
values reach about 4.4 in three NDR curves. The PCD value of 3.5 A
in triple PVCDR RTEC element is better than other resonant
tunneling devices (RTD) elements. The high PVCDR value is
concluded the lower VCD value about 0.8 A. The low VCD value is
achieved by suitable selection of resistors in triple PVCDR RTEC
element. The low PV value less than 1.35 V possesses low power
dispersion in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The designed multiple
value logical level (MVLL) system using triple PVCDR RTEC
element provides equidistant logical level. The logical levels of
MVLL system are about 0.2 V, 0.8 V, 1.5 V, and 2.2 V from low
voltage to high voltage and then 2.2 V, 1.3 V, 0.8 V, and 0.2 V from
high voltage back to low voltage in half cycle of sinusoid wave. The
output level of four levels MVLL system is represented in 0.3 V, 1.1 V,
1.7 V, and 2.6 V, which satisfies the NMP condition of traditional
two-bit system. The remarkable logical characteristic of improved
MVLL system with paralleled capacitor are with four significant
stable logical levels about 220 mV, 223 mV, 228 mV, and 230 mV.
The stability and articulation of logical levels of improved MVLL
system are outstanding. The average holding time of improved MVLL
system is approximately 0.14 μs. The holding time of improved
MVLL system is fourfold than of basic MVLL system. The function of
additional capacitor in the improved MVLL system is successfully
Abstract: With the demand of mobility by users, wireless
technologies have become the hotspot developing arena. Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) working group has developed Mobile
IP to support node mobility. The concept of node mobility indicates
that in spite of the movement of the node, it is still connected to the
internet and all the data transactions are preserved. It provides
location-independent access to Internet. After the incorporation of
host mobility, network mobility has undergone intense research.
There are several intricacies faced in the real world implementation
of network mobility significantly the problem of nested networks and
their consequences. This article is concerned regarding a problem of
nested network called pinball route problem and proposes a solution
to eliminate the above problem. The proposed mechanism is
implemented using NS2 simulation tool and it is found that the
proposed mechanism efficiently reduces the overload caused by the
pinball route problem.
Abstract: Time interleaved sigma-delta (TIΣΔ) architecture is a
potential candidate for high bandwidth analog to digital converters
(ADC) which remains a bottleneck for software and cognitive radio
receivers. However, the performance of the TIΣΔ architecture is
limited by the unavoidable gain and offset mismatches resulting
from the manufacturing process. This paper presents a novel digital
calibration method to compensate the gain and offset mismatch
effect. The proposed method takes advantage of the reconstruction
digital signal processing on each channel and requires only few logic
components for implementation. The run time calibration is estimated
to 10 and 15 clock cycles for offset cancellation and gain mismatch
Abstract: Fuel cells have become one of the major areas of
research in the academia and the industry. The goal of most fish
farmers is to maximize production and profits while holding labor
and management efforts to the minimum. Risk of fish kills, disease
outbreaks, poor water quality in most pond culture operations,
aeration offers the most immediate and practical solution to water
quality problems encountered at higher stocking and feeding rates.
Many units of aeration system are electrical units so using a
continuous, high reliability, affordable, and environmentally friendly
power sources is necessary. Aeration of water by using PEM fuel cell
power is not only a new application of the renewable energy, but
also, it provides an affordable method to promote biodiversity in
stagnant ponds and lakes. This paper presents a new design and
control of PEM fuel cell powered a diffused air aeration system for a
shrimp farm in Mersa Matruh in Egypt. Also Artificial intelligence
(AI) techniques control is used to control the fuel cell output power
by control input gases flow rate. Moreover the mathematical
modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell is introduced. A
comparison study is applied between the performance of fuzzy logic
control (FLC) and neural network control (NNC). The results show
the effectiveness of NNC over FLC.
Abstract: In this paper a mixed method by combining an evolutionary and a conventional technique is proposed for reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) continuous systems into Reduced Order Model (ROM). In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Mihailov stability criterion and continued Fraction Expansions (CFE) technique is employed where the reduced denominator polynomial is derived using Mihailov stability criterion and the numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of the Cauer second form of Continued fraction expansions. Then, retaining the numerator polynomial, the denominator polynomial is recalculated by an evolutionary technique. In the evolutionary method, the recently proposed Differential Evolution (DE) optimization technique is employed. DE method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. The proposed method is illustrated through a numerical example and compared with ROM where both numerator and denominator polynomials are obtained by conventional method to show its superiority.
Abstract: In this paper, Novel method, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, based technique is proposed to estimate and analyze the steady state performance of self-excited induction generator (SEIG). In this novel method the tedious job of deriving the complex coefficients of a polynomial equation and solving it, as in previous methods, is not required. By comparing the simulation results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by the well known mathematical methods, a good agreement between these results is obtained. The comparison validates the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Abstract: We present a white LED-based optical wireless
communication systems for indoor ubiquitous sensor networks. Each
sensor node could access to the server through the PLC (Power Line
Communication)-Ethernet interface. The proposed system offers a
full-duplex wireless link by using different wavelengths to reduce the
inter-symbol interference between uplink and downlink. Through the
1-to-n optical wireless sensor network and PLC modem, the mobile
terminals send a temperature data to server. The data transmission
speed and distance are 115.2kbps and about 60cm, respectively.
Abstract: Several methods have been proposed for color image
compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise
ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy
compression technique for color images which overcomes the
drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel
values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two
dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results
than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based
on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments
on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with
previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.
Abstract: Since DVB-RCS has been successively implemented, the mobile communication on the multi-beam satellite communication is attractive attention. And the DVB-RCS standard sets up to support mobility of a RCST. In the case of the spot-beam satellite system, the received signal strength does not differ largely between the center and the boundary of the beam. Thus, the RSS based handoff detection algorithm is not benefit to the satellite system as a terrestrial system. Therefore we propose an Adaptive handoff detection algorithm based on RCST mobility information. Our handoff detection algorithm not only can be used as centralized handoff detection algorithm but also removes uncertainties of handoff due to the variation of RSS. Performances were compared with RSS based handoff algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed handoff detection algorithm not only achieved better handoff and link degradation rate, but also achieved better forward link spectral efficiency.
Abstract: The power consumption of an Optical Packet Switch
equipped with SOA technology based Spanke switching fabric is
evaluated. Sophisticated analytical models are introduced to evaluate
the power consumption versus the offered traffic, the main
switch parameters, and the used device characteristics. The impact
of Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a
transmission system on the power consumption is investigated. As
a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths
and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per
bit is 5, 07 · 10-2 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by
the transmission systems is increased.
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology towards the emulation of the electrical power consumption of the RF device during the cellular phone/handset transmission mode using the LTE technology. The emulation methodology takes the physical environmental variables and the logical interface between the baseband and the RF system as inputs to compute the emulated power dissipation of the RF device. The emulated power, in between the measured points corresponding to the discrete values of the logical interface parameters is computed as a polynomial interpolation using polynomial basis functions. The evaluation of polynomial and spline curve fitting models showed a respective divergence (test error) of 8% and 0.02% from the physically measured power consumption. The precisions of the instruments used for the physical measurements have been modeled as intervals. We have been able to model the power consumption of the RF device operating at 5MHz using homotopy between 2 continuous power consumptions of the RF device operating at the bandwidths 3MHz and 10MHz.
Abstract: In this paper, we argue the security protocols of
ZigBee wireless sensor network in MAC layer. AES 128-bit
encryption algorithm in CCM* mode is secure transferred data;
however, AES-s secret key will be break within nearest future.
Efficient public key algorithm, ECC has been mixed with AES to
rescue the ZigBee wireless sensor from cipher text and replay attack.
Also, the proposed protocol can parallelize the integrity function to
increase system performance.
Abstract: The line start permanent magnet motor (LSPMM)
combines a permanent magnet rotor for a better motor efficiency
during synchronous running with an induction motor squirrel cage
rotor to permit the motor starting by direct coupling to power source.
In this paper effect of the rotor structure on a line start synchronous
permanent magnet motor (LSPMM) is analyzed. LSPMM motor with
three different structures for rotor is designed by using RMxprt
software; efficiency and line current of LSPMM motor for different
structures in full-load condition have been presented. The results
indicate that with correct choosing of rotor structure, maximum
efficiency can be found.