Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy and Investment Cost Limitation using Genetic Algorithm

In this research, STNEP is being studied considering network adequacy and limitation of investment cost by decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The goal is obtaining the maximum of network adequacy with lowest expansion cost for a specific investment. Finally, the proposed idea is applied to the Garvers 6-bus network. The results show that considering the network adequacy for solution of STNEP problem is caused that among of expansion plans for a determined investment, configuration which has relatively lower expansion cost and higher adequacy is proposed by GA based method. Finally, with respect to the curve of adequacy versus expansion cost it can be said that more optimal configurations for expansion of network are obtained with lower investment costs.

Low-Cost and Highly Accurate Motion Models for Three-Dimensional Local Landmark-based Autonomous Navigation

Recently, the Spherical Motion Models (SMM-s) have been introduced [1]. These new models have been developed for 3D local landmark-base Autonomous Navigation (AN). This paper is revealing new arguments and experimental results to support the SMM-s characteristics. The accuracy and the robustness in performing a specific task are the main concerns of the new investigations. To analyze their performances of the SMM-s, the most powerful tools of estimation theory, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), which give the best estimations in noisy environments, have been employed. The Monte Carlo validation implementations used to test the stability and robustness of the models have been employed as well.

Swarm Intelligence based Optimal Linear Phase FIR High Pass Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach

In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach (PSO-CFIWA) has been presented. In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional gradient based optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. Given the filter specifications to be realized, the PSO-CFIWA algorithm generates a set of optimal filter coefficients and tries to meet the ideal frequency response characteristic. In this paper, for the given problem, the designs of the optimal FIR high pass filters of different orders have been performed. The simulation results have been compared to those obtained by the well accepted algorithms such as Parks and McClellan algorithm (PM), genetic algorithm (GA). The results justify that the proposed optimal filter design approach using PSOCFIWA outperforms PM and GA, not only in the accuracy of the designed filter but also in the convergence speed and solution quality.

Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Robust Power System Stabilizer Design

Power system stabilizers (PSS) are now routinely used in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. In this paper, real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) optimization technique is applied to design robust power system stabilizer for both singlemachine infinite-bus (SMIB) and multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and RCGA is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The non-linear simulation results are presented under wide range of operating conditions; disturbances at different locations as well as for various fault clearing sequences to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations.

On Simulation based WSN Multi-Parametric Performance Analysis

Optimum communication and performance in Wireless Sensor Networks, constitute multi-facet challenges due to the specific networking characteristics as well as the scarce resource availability. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that isolated layer based approaches often do not meet the demands posed by WSNs applications due to omission of critical inter-layer interactions and dependencies. As a counterpart, cross-layer is receiving high interest aiming to exploit these interactions and increase network performance. However, in order to clearly identify existing dependencies, comprehensive performance studies are required evaluating the effect of different critical network parameters on system level performance and behavior.This paper-s main objective is to address the need for multi-parametric performance evaluations considering critical network parameters using a well known network simulator, offering useful and practical conclusions and guidelines. The results reveal strong dependencies among considered parameters which can be utilized by and drive future research efforts, towards designing and implementing highly efficient protocols and architectures.

Hourly Electricity Load Forecasting: An Empirical Application to the Italian Railways

Due to the liberalization of countless electricity markets, load forecasting has become crucial to all public utilities for which electricity is a strategic variable. With the goal of contributing to the forecasting process inside public utilities, this paper addresses the issue of applying the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing technique and the time series analysis for forecasting the hourly electricity load curve of the Italian railways. The results of the analysis confirm the accuracy of the two models and therefore the relevance of forecasting inside public utilities.

Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach

An analysis of a synchronous generator in a bond graph approach is proposed. This bond graph allows to determine the simplified models of the system by using singular perturbations. Firstly, the nonlinear bond graph of the generator is linearized. Then, the slow and fast state equations by applying singular perturbations are obtained. Also, a bond graph to get the quasi-steady state of the slow dynamic is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the singularly perturbed models, simulation results of the complete system and reduced models are shown.

Doping Profile Measurement and Characterization by Scanning Capacitance Microscope for PocketImplanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET

This paper presents the doping profile measurement and characterization technique for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. Scanning capacitance microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to image the extent of lateral dopant diffusion in MOS structures. The data are capacitance vs. voltage measurements made on a nano scale device. The technique is nondestructive when imaging uncleaved samples. Experimental data from the published literature are presented here on actual, cleaved device structures which clearly indicate the two-dimensional dopant profile in terms of a spatially varying modulated capacitance signal. Firstorder deconvolution indicates the technique has much promise for the quantitative characterization of lateral dopant profiles. The pocket profile is modeled assuming the linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. From the model, the effective doping concentration is found to use in modeling and simulation results of the various parameters of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The potential of the technique to characterize important device related phenomena on a local scale is also discussed.

Dynamic Economic Dispatch Constrained by Wind Power Weibull Distribution: A Here-and-Now Strategy

In this paper, a Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) model is developed for the system consisting of both thermal generators and wind turbines. The inclusion of a significant amount of wind energy into power systems has resulted in additional constraints on DED to accommodate the intermittent nature of the output. The probability of stochastic wind power based on the Weibull probability density function is included in the model as a constraint; A Here-and-Now Approach. The Environmental Protection Agency-s hourly emission target, which gives the maximum emission during the day, is used as a constraint to reduce the atmospheric pollution. A 69-bus test system with non-smooth cost function is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model compared with static economic dispatch model with including the wind power.

Efficient Power-Delay Product Modulo 2n+1 Adder Design

As embedded and portable systems were emerged power consumption of circuits had been major challenge. On the other hand latency as determines frequency of circuits is also vital task. Therefore, trade off between both of them will be desirable. Modulo 2n+1 adders are important part of the residue number system (RNS) based arithmetic units with the interesting moduli set (2n-1,2n, 2n+1). In this manuscript we have introduced novel binary representation to the design of modulo 2n+1 adder. VLSI realization of proposed architecture under 180 nm full static CMOS technology reveals its superiority in terms of area, power consumption and power-delay product (PDP) against several peer existing structures.

Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage

This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.

Application of Pulse Doubling in Star-Connected Autotransformer Based 12-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Power Quality Improvement

This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMD-s) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifier. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6- pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

Sensorless Sliding Power Control of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generator Based on MRAS Observer

In this paper present a sensorless maximum wind power extraction for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generation systems with a doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG), to ensure stability and to impose the ideal feedback control solution despite of model uncertainties , using the principles of an active and reactive power controller (DPC) a robust sliding mode power control has been proposed to guarantees fast response times and precise control actions for control the active and reactive power independently. The simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink platform confirmed the good dynamic performance of power control approach for DFIGbased variable speed wind turbines.

The Performance Improvement of the Target Position Determining System in Laser Tracking Based on 4Q Detector using Neural Network

One of the methods for detecting the target position error in the laser tracking systems is using Four Quadrant (4Q) detectors. If the coordinates of the target center is yielded through the usual relations of the detector outputs, the results will be nonlinear, dependent on the shape, target size and its position on the detector screen. In this paper we have designed an algorithm with using neural network that coordinates of the target center in laser tracking systems is calculated by using detector outputs obtained from visual modeling. With this method, the results except from the part related to the detector intrinsic limitation, are linear and dependent from the shape and target size.

A Microstrip Antenna Design and Performance Analysis for RFID High Bit Rate Applications

Lately, an interest has grown greatly in the usages of RFID in an un-presidential applications. It is shown in the adaptation of major software companies such as Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle the RFID capabilities in their major software products. For example Microsoft SharePoints 2010 workflow is now fully compatible with RFID platform. In addition, Microsoft BizTalk server is also capable of all RFID sensors data acquisition. This will lead to applications that required high bit rate, long range and a multimedia content in nature. Higher frequencies of operation have been designated for RFID tags, among them are the 2.45 and 5.8 GHz. The higher the frequency means higher range, and higher bit rate, but the drawback is the greater cost. In this paper we present a single layer, low profile patch antenna operates at 5.8 GHz with pure resistive input impedance of 50 and close to directive radiation. Also, we propose a modification to the design in order to improve the operation band width from 8.7 to 13.8

An Efficient Data Collection Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

One of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks is data collection. This paper proposes as efficient approach for data collection in wireless sensor networks by introducing Member Forward List. This list includes the nodes with highest priority for forwarding the data. When a node fails or dies, this list is used to select the next node with higher priority. The benefit of this node is that it prevents the algorithm from repeating when a node fails or dies. The results show that Member Forward List decreases power consumption and latency in wireless sensor networks.

Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for ANN-based Performance Modeling of Nano-scale CMOS Inverter

This paper presents an adaptive technique for generation of data required for construction of artificial neural network-based performance model of nano-scale CMOS inverter circuit. The training data are generated from the samples through SPICE simulation. The proposed algorithm has been compared to standard progressive sampling algorithms like arithmetic sampling and geometric sampling. The advantages of the present approach over the others have been demonstrated. The ANN predicted results have been compared with actual SPICE results. A very good accuracy has been obtained.

Scale Time Offset Robust Modulation (STORM) in a Code Division Multiaccess Environment

Scale Time Offset Robust Modulation (STORM) [1]– [3] is a high bandwidth waveform design that adds time-scale to embedded reference modulations using only time-delay [4]. In an environment where each user has a specific delay and scale, identification of the user with the highest signal power and that user-s phase is facilitated by the STORM processor. Both of these parameters are required in an efficient multiuser detection algorithm. In this paper, the STORM modulation approach is evaluated with a direct sequence spread quadrature phase shift keying (DS-QPSK) system. A misconception of the STORM time scale modulation is that a fine temporal resolution is required at the receiver. STORM will be applied to a QPSK code division multiaccess (CDMA) system by modifying the spreading codes. Specifically, the in-phase code will use a typical spreading code, and the quadrature code will use a time-delayed and time-scaled version of the in-phase code. Subsequently, the same temporal resolution in the receiver is required before and after the application of STORM. In this paper, the bit error performance of STORM in a synchronous CDMA system is evaluated and compared to theory, and the bit error performance of STORM incorporated in a single user WCDMA downlink is presented to demonstrate the applicability of STORM in a modern communication system.

Small Signal Stability Assessment Employing PSO Based TCSC Controller with Comparison to GA Based Design

This paper aims to select the optimal location and setting parameters of TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator) controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to mitigate small signal oscillations in a multimachine power system. Though Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) are prime choice in this issue, installation of FACTS device has been suggested here in order to achieve appreciable damping of system oscillations. However, performance of any FACTS devices highly depends upon its parameters and suitable location in the power network. In this paper PSO as well as GA based techniques are used separately and compared their performances to investigate this problem. The results of small signal stability analysis have been represented employing eigenvalue as well as time domain response in face of two common power system disturbances e.g., varying load and transmission line outage. It has been revealed that the PSO based TCSC controller is more effective than GA based controller even during critical loading condition.

Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Non-Autonomous Circuit and its Application for Secure Communication

The nonlinear chaotic non-autonomous fourth order system is algebraically simple but can generate complex chaotic attractors. In this paper, non-autonomous fourth order chaotic oscillator circuits were designed and simulated. Also chaotic nonautonomous Attractor is addressed suitable for chaotic masking communication circuits using Matlab® and MultiSIM® programs. We have demonstrated in simulations that chaos can be synchronized and applied to signal masking communications. We suggest that this phenomenon of chaos synchronism may serve as the basis for little known chaotic non-autonomous Attractor to achieve signal masking communication applications. Simulation results are used to visualize and illustrate the effectiveness of non-autonomous chaotic system in signal masking. All simulations results performed on nonautonomous chaotic system are verify the applicable of secure communication.