Abstract: Energy efficiency is the key requirement in wireless sensor network as sensors are small, cheap and are deployed in very large number in a large geographical area, so there is no question of replacing the batteries of the sensors once deployed. Different ways can be used for efficient energy transmission including Multi-Hop algorithms, collaborative communication, cooperativecommunication, Beam- forming, routing algorithm, phase, frequency and time synchronization. The paper reviews the need for time synchronization and proposed a BFS based synchronization algorithm to achieve energy efficiency. The efficiency of our protocol has been tested and verified by simulation
Abstract: Medical image segmentation based on image smoothing followed by edge detection assumes a great degree of importance in the field of Image Processing. In this regard, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for medical image segmentation based on vigorous smoothening by identifying the type of noise and edge diction ideology which seems to be a boom in medical image diagnosis. The main objective of this algorithm is to consider a particular medical image as input and make the preprocessing to remove the noise content by employing suitable filter after identifying the type of noise and finally carrying out edge detection for image segmentation. The algorithm consists of three parts. First, identifying the type of noise present in the medical image as additive, multiplicative or impulsive by analysis of local histograms and denoising it by employing Median, Gaussian or Frost filter. Second, edge detection of the filtered medical image is carried out using Canny edge detection technique. And third part is about the segmentation of edge detected medical image by the method of Normalized Cut Eigen Vectors. The method is validated through experiments on real images. The proposed algorithm has been simulated on MATLAB platform. The results obtained by the simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is very effective which can deal with low quality or marginal vague images which has high spatial redundancy, low contrast and biggish noise, and has a potential of certain practical use of medical image diagnosis.
Abstract: It is well known that the channel capacity of Multiple-
Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) system increases as the number of
antenna pairs between transmitter and receiver increases but it suffers
from multiple expensive RF chains. To reduce the cost of RF chains,
Antenna Selection (AS) method can offer a good tradeoff between
expense and performance. In a transmitting AS system, Channel
State Information (CSI) feedback is necessarily required to choose
the best subset of antennas in which the effects of delays and errors
occurred in feedback channels are the most dominant factors
degrading the performance of the AS method. This paper presents the
concept of AS method using CSI from channel reciprocity instead of
feedback method. Reciprocity technique can easily archive CSI by
utilizing a reverse channel where the forward and reverse channels
are symmetrically considered in time, frequency and location. In this
work, the capacity performance of MIMO system when using AS
method at transmitter with reciprocity channels is investigated by
own developing Testbed. The obtained results show that reciprocity
technique offers capacity close to a system with a perfect CSI and
gains a higher capacity than a system without AS method from 0.9 to
2.2 bps/Hz at SNR 10 dB.
Abstract: Multi-Radio Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks (MRMC-WMNs) operate at the backbone to access and route high volumes of traffic simultaneously. Such roles demand high network capacity, and long “online" time at the expense of accelerated transmission energy depletion and poor connectivity. This is the problem of transmission power control. Numerous power control methods for wireless networks are in literature. However, contributions towards MRMC configurations still face many challenges worth considering. In this paper, an energy-efficient power selection protocol called PMMUP is suggested at the Link-Layer. This protocol first divides the MRMC-WMN into a set of unified channel graphs (UCGs). A UCG consists of multiple radios interconnected to each other via a common wireless channel. In each UCG, a stochastic linear quadratic cost function is formulated. Each user minimizes this cost function consisting of trade-off between the size of unification states and the control action. Unification state variables come from independent UCGs and higher layers of the protocol stack. The PMMUP coordinates power optimizations at the network interface cards (NICs) of wireless mesh routers. The proposed PMMUP based algorithm converges fast analytically with a linear rate. Performance evaluations through simulations confirm the efficacy of the proposed dynamic power control.
Abstract: Efficient storage, transmission and use of video information are key requirements in many multimedia applications currently being addressed by MPEG-4. To fulfill these requirements, a new approach for representing video information which relies on an object-based representation, has been adopted. Therefore, objectbased watermarking schemes are needed for copyright protection. This paper proposes a novel blind object watermarking scheme for images and video using the in place lifting shape adaptive-discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT). In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy image/video compression (e.g. JPEG, JPEG2000 and MPEG-4), scaling, adding noise, filtering, etc.
Abstract: This study investigates the performance of radial basis function networks (RBFN) in forecasting the monthly CO2 emissions of an electric power utility. We also propose a method for input variable selection. This method is based on identifying the general relationships between groups of input candidates and the output. The effect that each input has on the forecasting error is examined by removing all inputs except the variable to be investigated from its group, calculating the networks parameter and performing the forecast. Finally, the new forecasting error is compared with the reference model. Eight input variables were identified as the most relevant, which is significantly less than our reference model with 30 input variables. The simulation results demonstrate that the model with the 8 inputs selected using the method introduced in this study performs as accurate as the reference model, while also being the most parsimonious.
Abstract: Mobile robots are used in a large field of scenarios,
like exploring contaminated areas, repairing oil rigs under water,
finding survivors in collapsed buildings, etc. Currently, there is no
unified intuitive user interface (UI) to control such complex mobile
robots. As a consequence, some scenarios are done without the
exploitation of experience and intuition of human teleoperators.
A novel framework has been developed to embed a flexible and
modular UI into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system.
This new approach wants to access maximum benefits of human
operators. Sensor information received from the robot is prepared for
an intuitive visualization. Virtual reality metaphors support the
operator in his decisions. These metaphors are integrated into a real
time stereo video stream. This approach is not restricted to any
specific type of mobile robot and allows for the operation of different
robot types with a consistent concept and user interface.
Abstract: This paper describes about dynamic reconfiguration to
miniaturize arithmetic circuits in general-purpose processor. Dynamic
reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by
changing hardware construction during operation. The proposed
arithmetic circuit performs floating-point arithmetic which is
frequently used in science and technology. The data format is
floating-point based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed
using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and
Abstract: In this paper we present a full performance analysis of an energy conserving routing protocol in mobile ad hoc network, named ER-AODV (Energy Reverse Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing). ER-AODV is a reactive routing protocol based on a policy which combines two mechanisms used in the basic AODV protocol. AODV and most of the on demand ad hoc routing protocols use single route reply along reverse path. Rapid change of topology causes that the route reply could not arrive to the source node, i.e. after a source node sends several route request messages, the node obtains a reply message, and this increases in power consumption. To avoid these problems, we propose a mechanism which tries multiple route replies. The second mechanism proposes a new adaptive approach which seeks to incorporate the metric "residual energy " in the process route selection, Indeed the residual energy of mobile nodes were considered when making routing decisions. The results of simulation show that protocol ER-AODV answers a better energy conservation.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an effective relay
communication for layered video transmission as an alternative to
make the most of limited resources in a wireless communication
network where loss often occurs. Relaying brings stable multimedia
services to end clients, compared to multiple description coding
(MDC). Also, retransmission of only parity data about one or more
video layer using channel coder to the end client of the relay device is
paramount to the robustness of the loss situation. Using these
methods in resource-constrained environments, such as real-time user
created content (UCC) with layered video transmission, can provide
high-quality services even in a poor communication environment.
Minimal services are also possible. The mathematical analysis shows
that the proposed method reduced the probability of GOP loss rate
compared to MDC and raptor code without relay. The GOP loss rate
is about zero, while MDC and raptor code without relay have a GOP
loss rate of 36% and 70% in case of 10% frame loss rate.
Abstract: Since 2004, we have been developing an in-situ storage image sensor (ISIS) that captures more than 100 consecutive images at a frame rate of 10 Mfps with ultra-high sensitivity as well as the video camera for use with this ISIS. Currently, basic research is continuing in an attempt to increase the frame rate up to 100 Mfps and above. In order to suppress electro-magnetic noise at such high frequency, a digital-noiseless imaging transfer scheme has been developed utilizing solely sinusoidal driving voltages. This paper presents highly efficient-yet-accurate expressions to estimate attenuation as well as phase delay of driving voltages through RC networks of an ultra-high-speed image sensor. Elmore metric for a fundamental RC chain is employed as the first-order approximation. By application of dimensional analysis to SPICE data, we found a simple expression that significantly improves the accuracy of the approximation. Similarly, another simple closed-form model to estimate phase delay through fundamental RC networks is also obtained. Estimation error of both expressions is much less than previous works, only less 2% for most of the cases . The framework of this analysis can be extended to address similar issues of other VLSI structures.
Abstract: This paper presents a threshold voltage model of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOSFETs incorporating the drain and substrate bias effects using two linear pocket profiles. Two linear equations are used to simulate the pocket profiles along the channel at the surface from the source and drain edges towards the center of the n-MOSFET. Then the effective doping concentration is derived and is used in the threshold voltage equation that is obtained by solving the Poisson-s equation in the depletion region at the surface. Simulated threshold voltages for various gate lengths fit well with the experimental data already published in the literature. The simulated result is compared with the two other pocket profiles used to derive the threshold voltage models of n-MOSFETs. The comparison shows that the linear model has a simple compact form that can be utilized to study and characterize the pocket implanted advanced ULSI devices.
Abstract: In this paper, we study FPGA implementation of a
novel supra-optimal receiver diversity combining technique,
generalized maximal ratio combining (GMRC), for wireless
transmission over fading channels in SIMO systems. Prior
published results using ML-detected GMRC diversity signal
driven by BPSK showed superior bit error rate performance to
the widely used MRC combining scheme in an imperfect
channel estimation (ICE) environment. Under perfect channel
estimation conditions, the performance of GMRC and MRC
were identical. The main drawback of the GMRC study was
that it was theoretical, thus successful FPGA implementation
of it using pipeline techniques is needed as a wireless
communication test-bed for practical real-life situations.
Simulation results showed that the hardware implementation
was efficient both in terms of speed and area. Since diversity
combining is especially effective in small femto- and picocells,
internet-associated wireless peripheral systems are to
benefit most from GMRC. As a result, many spinoff
applications can be made to the hardware of IP-based 4th
Abstract: This paper presents a new method which applies an
artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for capacitor placement in
distribution systems with an objective of improving the voltage profile
and reduction of power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new population
based meta heuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior
of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that
it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and
mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution
and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other
advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented
by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism
which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity
of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on
69-bus system and compared the results with the other approach
available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the
other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational
Abstract: Signature represents an individual characteristic of a
person which can be used for his / her validation. For such application
proper modeling is essential. Here we propose an offline signature
recognition and verification scheme which is based on extraction of
several features including one hybrid set from the input signature
and compare them with the already trained forms. Feature points
are classified using statistical parameters like mean and variance.
The scanned signature is normalized in slant using a very simple
algorithm with an intention to make the system robust which is
found to be very helpful. The slant correction is further aided by the
use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The suggested scheme
discriminates between originals and forged signatures from simple
and random forgeries. The primary objective is to reduce the two
crucial parameters-False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection
Rate (FRR) with lesser training time with an intension to make the
system dynamic using a cluster of ANNs forming a multiple classifier
Abstract: A new data fusion method called joint probability density matrix (JPDM) is proposed, which can associate and fuse measurements from spatially distributed heterogeneous sensors to identify the real target in a surveillance region. Using the probabilistic grids representation, we numerically combine the uncertainty regions of all the measurements in a general framework. The NP-hard multisensor data fusion problem has been converted to a peak picking problem in the grids map. Unlike most of the existing data fusion method, the JPDM method dose not need association processing, and will not lead to combinatorial explosion. Its convergence to the CRLB with a diminishing grid size has been proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Abstract: A simple analytical model has been developed to
optimize biasing conditions for obtaining maximum linearity among
lattice-matched, pseudomorphic and metamorphic HEMT types as
well as enhancement and depletion HEMT modes. A nonlinear
current-voltage model has been simulated based on extracted data to
study and select the most appropriate type and mode of HEMT in
terms of a given gate-source biasing voltage within the device so as
to employ the circuit for the highest possible output current or
voltage linear swing. Simulation results can be used as a basis for the
selection of optimum gate-source biasing voltage for a given type
and mode of HEMT with regard to a circuit design. The
consequences can also be a criterion for choosing the optimum type
or mode of HEMT for a predetermined biasing condition.
Abstract: As known that efficiency of photovoltaic cells is not
high as desired level. Efficiency of PVs could be improved by
selecting convenient locations that have high solar irradiation,
sunshine duration, mild temperature, low level air pollution and dust
concentration. Additionally, some environmental parameters called
derating factors effect to decrease PV efficiencies such as cloud, high
temperature, aerosol optical depth, high dust concentration, shadow,
snow, humidity etc. In this paper, all parameters that effect PV
efficiency are considered in detail under climatic conditions of
Istanbul. A 750 Wp PV system with measurement devices is
constructed in Maslak campus of Istanbul Technical University.
Abstract: To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.
Abstract: Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) is considered the most complex combining technique as it requires channel coefficients estimation. It results in the lowest bit error rate (BER) compared to all other combining techniques. However the BER starts to deteriorate as errors are introduced in the channel coefficients estimation. A novel combining technique, termed Generalized Maximal Ratio Combining (GMRC) with a polynomial kernel, yields an identical BER as MRC with perfect channel estimation and a lower BER in the presence of channel estimation errors. We show that GMRC outperforms the optimal MRC scheme in general and we hereinafter introduce it to the scientific community as a new “supraoptimal" algorithm. Since diversity combining is especially effective in small femto- and pico-cells, internet-associated wireless peripheral systems are to benefit most from GMRC. As a result, many spinoff applications can be made to IP-based 4th generation networks.