Abstract: According to the increasing utilization in power system, the transmission lines and power plants often operate in stability boundary and system probably lose its stable condition by over loading or occurring disturbance. According to the reasons that are mentioned, the prediction and recognition of voltage instability in power system has particular importance and it makes the network security stronger.This paper, by considering of power system contingencies based on the effects of them on Mega Watt Margin (MWM) and maximum loading point is focused in order to analyse the static voltage stability using continuation power flow method. The study has been carried out on IEEE 14-Bus Test System using Matlab and Psat softwares and results are presented.
Abstract: The performance of ground to deep space optical
communication systems is degraded by distortion of the beam as it
propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. Turbulence causes
fluctuations in the intensity of the received signal which ultimately
affects the acquisition time required to acquire and locate the spaceborne
target using narrow laser beam. In this paper, performance of
free-space optical (FSO) communication system in atmospheric
turbulence has been analyzed in terms of acquisition time for
coherent and non-coherent modulation schemes. Numerical results
presented in graphical and tabular forms show that the acquisition
time increases with the increase in turbulence level. This is true for
both schemes. The BPSK has lowest acquisition time among all
schemes. In non-coherent schemes, M-PPM performs better than the
other schemes. With the increase in M, acquisition time becomes
lower, but at the cost of increase in system complexity.
Abstract: In order to enhance the contrast in the regions where the pixels have similar intensities, this paper presents a new histogram equalization scheme. Conventional global equalization schemes over-equalizes these regions so that too bright or dark pixels are resulted and local equalization schemes produce unexpected discontinuities at the boundaries of the blocks. The proposed algorithm segments the original histogram into sub-histograms with reference to brightness level and equalizes each sub-histogram with the limited extents of equalization considering its mean and variance. The final image is determined as the weighted sum of the equalized images obtained by using the sub-histogram equalizations. By limiting the maximum and minimum ranges of equalization operations on individual sub-histograms, the over-equalization effect is eliminated. Also the result image does not miss feature information in low density histogram region since the remaining these area is applied separating equalization. This paper includes how to determine the segmentation points in the histogram. The proposed algorithm has been tested with more than 100 images having various contrasts in the images and the results are compared to the conventional approaches to show its superiority.
Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive motion estimator
that can be dynamically reconfigured by the best algorithm
depending on the variation of the video nature during the lifetime
of an application under running. The 4 Step Search (4SS) and the
Gradient Search (GS) algorithms are integrated in the estimator in
order to be used in the case of rapid and slow video sequences
respectively. The Full Search Block Matching (FSBM) algorithm
has been also integrated in order to be used in the case of the
video sequences which are not real time oriented.
In order to efficiently reduce the computational cost while
achieving better visual quality with low cost power, the proposed
motion estimator is based on a Variable Block Size (VBS) scheme
that uses only the 16x16, 16x8, 8x16 and 8x8 modes.
Experimental results show that the adaptive motion estimator
allows better results in term of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
(PSNR), computational cost, FPGA occupied area, and dissipated
power relatively to the most popular variable block size schemes
presented in the literature.
Abstract: This paper presents PSS (Power system stabilizer) design based on optimal fuzzy PID (OFPID). OFPID based PSS design is considered for single-machine power systems. The main motivation for this design is to stabilize or to control low-frequency oscillation on power systems. Firstly, describing the linear PID control then to combine this PID control with fuzzy logic control mechanism. Finally, Fuzzy PID parameters (Kp. Kd, KI, Kupd, Kui) are tuned by Genetic Algorthm (GA) to reach optimal global stability. The effectiveness of the proposed PSS in increasing the damping of system electromechanical oscillation is demonstrated in a one-machine-infinite-bus system
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.
Abstract: A proposed small-signal model parameters for a pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is presented. Both extrinsic and intrinsic circuit elements of a smallsignal model are determined using genetic algorithm (GA) as a stochastic global search and optimization tool. The parameters extraction of the small-signal model is performed on 200-μm gate width AlGaAs/InGaAs PHEMT. The equivalent circuit elements for a proposed 18 elements model are determined directly from the measured S- parameters. The GA is used to extract the parameters of the proposed small-signal model from 0.5 up to 18 GHz.
Abstract: One of the major causes of voltage instability is the reactive power limit of the system. Improving the system's reactive power handling capacity via Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS) devices is a remedy for prevention of voltage instability and hence voltage collapse. In this paper, the effects of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement will be studied. AC and DC representations of SVC and STATCOM are used in the continuation power flow process in static voltage stability study. The IEEE-14 bus system is simulated to test the increasing loadability. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the loadability margin of power systems.
Abstract: This paper discusses the approach of real-time
controlling of the energy management system using the data
acquisition tool of LabVIEW. The main idea of this inspiration was
to interface the Station (PC) with the system and publish the data on
internet using LabVIEW. In this venture, controlling and switching of
3 phase AC loads are effectively and efficiently done. The phases are
also sensed through devices. In case of any failure the attached
generator starts functioning automatically. The computer sends
command to the system and system respond to the request. The
modern feature is to access and control the system world-wide using
world wide web (internet). This controlling can be done at any time
from anywhere to effectively use the energy especially in developing
countries where energy management is a big problem. In this system
totally integrated devices are used to operate via remote location.
Abstract: In the present work, Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA)
technique was adopted to understand the space charge dynamics in
elastomeric material. It is observed that the polarity of the applied
DC voltage voltage and its magnitude alters the space charge
dynamics in insulation structure. It is also noticed that any addition
of compound to the base material/processing technique have
characteristic variation in the space charge injection process. It could
be concluded based on the present work that the plasticizer could
inject heterocharges into the insulation medium. Also it is realized
that space charge magnitude is less with the addition of plasticizer. In
the PEA studies, it is observed that local electric field in the
insulating material can be much more than applied electric field due
to space charge formation. One of the important conclusions arrived
at based on PEA technique is that one could understand the safe
operating electric field of an insulation material and the charge trap
Abstract: Due to its capability to resist jamming signals, chirp
spread spectrum (CSS) technique has attracted much attention in
the area of wireless communications. However, there has been little
rigorous analysis for the performance of the CSS communication
system in jamming environments. In this paper, we present analytic
results on the performance of a CSS system by deriving symbol
error rate (SER) expressions for a CSS M-ary phase shift keying
(MPSK) system in the presence of broadband and tone jamming
signals, respectively. The numerical results show that the empirical
SER closely agrees with the analytic result.
Abstract: A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks is an emerging technology
that serves as environment monitors in many applications. Yet
these miniatures suffer from constrained resources in terms of
computation capabilities and energy resources. Limited energy
resource in these nodes demands an efficient consumption of that
resource either by developing the modules itself or by providing
an efficient communication protocols. This paper presents a
comprehensive summarization and a comparative study of the
available MAC protocols proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks
showing their capabilities and efficiency in terms of energy
consumption and delay guarantee.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose disease diagnosis hardware
architecture by using Hypernetworks technique. It can be used to
diagnose 3 different diseases (SPECT Heart, Leukemia, Prostate
cancer). Generally, the disparate diseases require specified diagnosis
hardware model for each disease. Using similarities of three diseases
diagnosis processor, we design diagnosis processor that can diagnose
three different diseases. Our proposed architecture that is combining
three processors to one processor can reduce hardware size without
decrease of the accuracy.
Abstract: During signal transmission, the combined effect of the
transmitter filter, the transmission medium, and additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN) are included in the channel which distort
and add noise to the signal. This causes the well defined signal
constellation to spread causing errors in bit detection. A compact pi
neural network with minimum number of nodes is proposed. The
replacement of summation at each node by multiplication results in
more powerful mapping. The resultant pi network is tested on six
Abstract: This paper proposes a balance control scheme for a biped robot to trace an arbitrary path using image information. While moving, it estimates the zero moment point(ZMP) of the biped robot in the next step using a Kalman filter and renders an appropriate balanced pose of the robot. The ZMP can be calculated from the robot's pose, which is measured from the reference object image acquired by a CCD camera on the robot's head. For simplifying the kinematical model, the coordinates systems of individual joints of each leg are aligned and the robot motion is approximated as an inverted pendulum so that a simple linear dynamics, 3D-LIPM(3D-Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode) can be applied. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been proven by the experiments performed on unknown trajectory.
Abstract: Assessment for image quality traditionally needs its
original image as a reference. The conventional method for assessment
like Mean Square Error (MSE) or Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)
is invalid when there is no reference. In this paper, we present a new
No-Reference (NR) assessment of image quality using blur and noise.
The recent camera applications provide high quality images by help of
digital Image Signal Processor (ISP). Since the images taken by the
high performance of digital camera have few blocking and ringing
artifacts, we only focus on the blur and noise for predicting the
objective image quality. The experimental results show that the
proposed assessment method gives high correlation with subjective
Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). Furthermore, the proposed
method provides very low computational load in spatial domain and
similar extraction of characteristics to human perceptional assessment.
Abstract: In a chirp spread spectrum (CSS) system, the overlap
technique is used for increasing bit rate. More overlaps can offer
higher data throughput; however, they may cause more intersymbol
interference (ISI) at the same time, resulting in serious bit error
rate (BER) performance degradation. In this paper, we perform the
BER analysis and derive a closed form BER expression for the
overlap-based CSS system. The derived BER expression includes
the number of overlaps as a parameter, and thus, would be very
useful in determining the number of overlaps for a specified BER.
The numerical results demonstrate that the BER derived in a closed
form closely agrees with the simulated BER.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to suggest energy efficient
routing for ad hoc networks which are composed of nodes with limited
energy. There are diverse problems including limitation of energy
supply of node, and the node energy management problem has been
presented. And a number of protocols have been proposed for energy
conservation and energy efficiency. In this study, the critical point of
the EA-MPDSR, that is the type of energy efficient routing using only
two paths, is improved and developed. The proposed TP-MESR uses
multi-path routing technique and traffic prediction function to increase
number of path more than 2. It also verifies its efficiency compared to
EA-MPDSR using network simulator (NS-2). Also, To give a
academic value and explain protocol systematically, research
guidelines which the Hevner(2004) suggests are applied. This
proposed TP-MESR solved the existing multi-path routing problem
related to overhead, radio interference, packet reassembly and it
confirmed its contribution to effective use of energy in ad hoc
Abstract: In this paper, we propose APO, a new packet scheduling
scheme with Quality of Service (QoS) support for hybrid of
real and non-real time services in HSDPA networks. The APO
scheduling algorithm is based on the effective channel anticipation
model. In contrast to the traditional schemes, the proposed method is
implemented based on a cyclic non-work-conserving discipline.
Simulation results indicated that proposed scheme has good
capability to maximize the channel usage efficiency in compared to
another exist scheduling methods. Simulation results demonstrate the
effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.